Mushroom extracts with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Wild edible mushrooms have a high nutritional property that has been consumed by people from different parts of the world, producing a wide variety of bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, peptides, glycoproteins, triterpenoids, lipids, and their derivatives. In the world, multidrug-resistant pathogens have been increasing drastically, and it is very urgent to search for alternative solutions to fight against multidrug-resistant pathogens. Moreover, unhealthy foods, ultraviolet radiation, as well as other environmental effects, are responsible for generating free radicals, oxidative stress, and numerous health diseases. Hence, the wild edible mushroom could be an alternative source of new antimicrobial potential and possesses antioxidant properties that can play significant roles in preventing various health diseases. In this book chapter, we focus on investigating the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of wild edible mushrooms and their bioactive compound production.
- edible mushrooms
- bioactive compounds
Fungi are eukaryotic and spore-bearing organisms with a life cycle divided into two phases: a growth phase and a reproductive phase. Macro fungi or mushrooms are species with a natural fruit body that can grow large enough to be visible or can grow underground. The spores, produced by the fruiting body, are the unit of sexual and asexual reproduction and are responsible for fungi’s spread .
About 14,000 mushroom species have been reported, among them, 2000 mushrooms are reported as edible . Additionally, less than 1% of the recognized fungus is poisonous, and a less percentage is fatal species . Edible mushrooms have high medicinal properties due to their great rich content of polysaccharides, especially β-glucans. Many researchers reported that edible mushrooms have enormous features, including antioxidants, cholesterol-lowering properties, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, liver protection, as well as anti-diabetic, anti-viral, and anti-microbial potential (Figure 1) [4, 5, 6, 7].
Currently, antimicrobial drug resistance is the serious problem in the world. The selection of bacterial strains based on physiological or biological aspects used high doses for the treatment of antimicrobial resistance pathogens . Under certain conditions, the susceptible bacterial growth is inhibited by the drug while it becomes high resistant . This problem has eagerly vigored the researchers to find the alternative source to fight against multidrug resistant pathogens and develop the new antimicrobial substances from various sources . Hence, the researchers are studied that various types of mushroom have high antimicrobial potential and could be useful for new therapeutic activities such as anticarcinogenic, immuno-suppressor, and antibiotic, among others. In recent periods, different genus mushroom (
Moreover, full edible mushrooms show significant antioxidant activity. Antioxidant compounds protect the cells from oxidative stress, a cellular process involved in the development of different humans’ diseases as diabetic disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer, among others. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the different extracts of mushroom displayed potent antioxidant activity. For example,
As we know, edible mushrooms have wide range of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. In this chapter, we will focus to describe the importance of wild edible mushrooms with their antimicrobial potential against pathogens as well as determine their antioxidant activities.
2. General information about mushroom
Mushrooms are eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms defined as macrofungi with a fruiting body formed by a cap and a stalk . These macrofungi contain a wide variety of species belonging to the class Basidiomycota . The mushrooms are filamentous fungi with both sexual and asexual reproduction cycle. The characteristic of basidiomycetes is a spore-producing structure or fruiting body called basidium. The morphological unit of the basidium is the hyphae, and a mass of hyphae is called mycelium. The spores produced inside the basidium are called basidiospore and are responsible for its reproduction and its dissemination. Sexual reproduction begins when the basidiospore germinates and grown as a haploid mycelium in optimal environmental conditions [1, 20]. Mushrooms are well-known as edible and non-edible macro-fungi. The edible and non-edible mushroom can differentiate based on morphological characteristics like color, appearance, and shape of the cap .
In recent years, many studies have been reported that mushroom has extreme nutritional properties like vitamins, fats, proteins, etc. and could have high therapeutic properties that can be used as an antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, cardiovascular protector, and hepatoprotective effects . Moreover, the mushroom could be used as potential sources to obtain peptides, vitamins, proteins, lipids, amino acids, fiber, and antimicrobial compounds . Last 20 years, most of the food industry could use the mushroom as a food product to prepare different kinds of jam, pickle, sweets, etc. .
3. Antimicrobial potential of edible mushroom
The use of antibiotics is the single most crucial factor leading to increased resistance of pathogenic microorganisms around the world . Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs used in human medicine. However, up to 50% of all the antibiotics prescribed for people are not needed or not optimally effective as prescribed . Another major factor in the growth of antibiotic resistance is spread of the resistant strains of bacteria from person to person, or from the non-human sources in the environment, including food . Natural resources have been taken advantage over the years, and among them, wild edible mushrooms vast diversity of active compounds with nutritional and antimicrobials properties [25, 26, 27]. Mushrooms have long been playing an essential role in several aspects, having medicinal value; mushrooms have been playing an indispensable role in several aspects of human activity, like feed and medicinal properties [28, 29]. Current researches have been focused on searching for new antimicrobials therapeutically potential compounds of edible mushrooms  recognizing that some of these molecules have health beneficial effects, including antimicrobial properties.
Nowadays, researchers are interested in searching antimicrobial compounds isolated from edible mushrooms that can be useful to inhibit the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Recently, Kosanić et al.  state that acetone extract of Craterellus cornucopioides has strong minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis) bacteria with a range of 0.1–0.2 mg/ mL. Interestingly, the effect of feeding C57BL/6 mice
|Methanol||MIC = 2.5–50 mg/mL||Nikolovska et al. |
|Sulphated polysaccharides and crude polysaccharides||MIC = 0.625–10.0 mg/mL and IZ = 11.7–31.8 mm||Li and Shah |
|Methanol||MIC = 0.625–20.0 mg/mL and MBC = 1.25–40.0 mg/mL||Matijasevic et al. |
|Methanol||MIC = 2.5–20.0 mg/mL||Kosanić et al. |
|Methanol||MIC = 5.0–10.0 mg/mL||Kosanić et al. |
|Methanol||MIC = 0.1–0.2 mg/mL||Taofiq et al. |
|Butanol and ethyl acetate||MIC = 250–750 μg/mL and MBC = 500–750 μg/mL||Shameem et al. |
|Methanol||IZ = 11 ± 0–22 ± 1 mm||Kaygusuz et al. |
|Petroleum, chloroform, methanol and aqueous||IZ = 7.0–17.67 mm||Mohanarji et al. ; Nallathamby et al. |
|Ethyl-acetate||IZ = 7.0 ± 0.10–10.0 ± 0.50 mm and MIC = 2.50 ± 0.5–22.5 ± 1.7 mg/mL||Chaiharn et al. |
|Ethyl-acetate, methanol, aqueous, and ethanol||IZ = 6.2–20.0 mm and MIC = 1.50–25.0 mg/mL||Chaiharn et al. |
|Ethyl-acetate, methanol, and ethanol||IZ = 6.1–12.0 mm and MIC = 1.50–17.5 mg/mL||Chaiharn et al. |
|Ethyl-acetate and aqueous||IZ = 6.1–15.0 mm and MIC = 1.25–15.5 mg/mL||Chaiharn et al. |
|Ethanol||MIC = 100–400 μg/mL||Sevindik et al. |
|Acetone||MIC = 0.1–0.2 mg/mL||Kosanić et al. |
|Aqueous, methanol, cyclohexane, and dichloromethane||MIC = 250–500 μg/mL||Muszyńska et al. |
4. Antioxidant potential of edible mushroom
Free radical is unstable and very reactive molecules defined as any molecule containing unpaired electrons. These molecules attack nearby chemical compounds to capture the needed electron for gaining stability [44, 45]. Free radicals can be derivate from nitrogen compounds [Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)] or molecular oxygen (O2) [Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)]. ROS are the ruling class of radical species producing by endogenous and exogenous sources in living systems . The endogenous source is present in aerobic cells that include metabolism of energy production, respiratory burst, respiratory chain inside the mitochondrial, and some intracellular enzymes reactions. Exogenous sources are tobacco smoke, stress, drugs, environmental pollution, xenobiotics, among others [44, 46].
In physiological conditions, antioxidant compounds control ROS levels by an enzymatic system or a non-enzymatic system. The enzymatic system comprises superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidases, and catalase, whereas ascorbic acid (vitamin C), α tocopherol (vitamin E), glutathione, carotenoids, and flavonoids make part of the non-enzymatic system . However, ROS can be maintained at low concentrations because they require different cell processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression . The oxidant stress is formed due to in balance of ROS production and antioxidant defenses. The cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA can damage due to increase of ROS that can form various stress like diabetes, cancer, neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, mutagenesis, and the aging process . For that reason, the improvement of antioxidant-containing foods may help to reduce the harmful effects caused by oxidative damage . Nowadays, researchers are focused on mushroom antioxidant potential due to their high levels of antioxidants like phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, tocopherols, carotenoids, ergosterol, and ascorbic acid are present in the mushroom .
In Table 2, we have mentioned various mushroom extracts that have abundant antioxidant activity and produced several phenolic compounds. Total phenolic content varied from 5.1 ± 0.5 to 81.33 ± 1.1 mg GAE/g of extract found in
|Mushroom||Extracts||Method||Type of compound||Others||Reference|
|Ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous||TPC, TFC, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC capacity, phospho-molybdenum, and metal chelating assay||Benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and trans-cinnamic acid||Similar antioxidant ability among ||Bahadori et al. |
|Methanol and ethyl acetate||TPC, TFC, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and catalase activity||Phenolic compounds, flavonoids compounds||Only ||Garrab et al. |
|Methanol and ethanol||TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS assay||Phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, flavonoids compounds||Variation in the bioactive substances levels and the antioxidant activity depends on ||Li et al. |
|Aqueous||UND||Phytol, octahydropyrrolo, 1,2-alpyrazine, and 3-trifluoroacetoxy-pentadecane||Among the 15 compounds determinate by GC-MS, three of them possess antioxidant activity||Ugbogu et al. |
|Aqueous and methanol||TPC and DPPH||UND||Despite methanol extract was richer in phenols than aqueous extract, both are weak antioxidants||Muszyńska et al. |
|UND||TPC, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay||Phenolic, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, nonphenolic, fumaric acid, and benzoic acid||Bach et al. |
|Methanol, ethanol and aqueous||TPC, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, TRP, CUPRAC capacity, and FRS activity||Phenolic compounds||Aqueous extracts exerted better antioxidant activity in comparison with methanol and ethanol extracts||Dimitrijevic et al. |
|Ethanolic||DPPH, TOS, TAS, and OSI||Phenolic, gallic acid, catechin, and hesperidin||Ethanolic extracts have powerful antioxidant activity suggesting that can be used as an alternative source of antioxidants||Sevindik et al. |
|Acetone||TPC, DPPH, superoxide anion, scavenging activity, and reducing power||Phenolic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, flavonols, rutin, quercetin, flavan-3-ol, and catechin||Kosanić et al. |
|Hydro-alcoholic||TPC, DPPH assay, ORAC capacity, ABTS assay and β-carotene bleaching||Phenolic components||Adebayo et al. |
|Hexan, ethylacetate, ethanol, methanol, and aqueous||ABTS assay and TEAC||Polysaccharides||Chaiharn et al. |
|Methanol||TPC, TFC, DPPH, and FRAP||Flavonols, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, myricetin, kaempferol, flavan-3-ols, catechin, epicatechin, flavanone, and naringenin||Butkhup et al. |
|Hydro ethanol||TPC, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical quenching chelating ability of metal ion, reducing power, and TAC||Ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, pyrogallol, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene||The obtained hydro-ethanol extract was enriched with bioactive compounds and exhibited strong antioxidant potentiality||Khatua et al. |
|Ethanol||DPPH assay, chelating activity, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation||Caffeic acid, gallic acid, 3,4 and 2,5 dihydroxybenzoic, cinnamic acid, phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, ascorbic acid, lycopeneand, and β-carotene||Polysaccharide compound was correlated with DPPH assay activity. Phenolic compounds were correlated with the reducing power, and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation||Vamanu |
|UND||DPPH and ABTS assay||Three them were new amino acid derivatives||These three new compounds: (1) C12H14N2O4, (2) C9H16N2O4, and (3) C12H12N4O3 have comparable antioxidant activity with that of the standard compound||Lu et al. |
|Methanol||TPC, TAC, TOS, LOOHs, and TFS||UND||This is the first report of the antioxidant activity of ||Kaygusuz et al. |
|Aqueous||DPPH assay||Flavonoids and carboxylic acids||Sriramulu and Sumathi |
|Methanol||TPC, TAC, TOS, LOOHs, and TFS||UND||This is the first report of the antioxidant activity of ||Kaygusuz et al. |
|Methanol||TPC, TFC, ascorbic acid content, ß-carotene and lycopene content, DPPH, ferrous ion chelating, and reducing power||Pyrogallol||This edible mushroom showed potentiality in the antioxidant activity assays. Otherwise, phenolic compounds were the major bioactive component founded||Acharya et al. |
|Methanol||Total soluble phenolic compounds, TPC, DPPH assay, and reducing power||Phenolic compounds||Despite ||Kosanić et al. |
|Dichloromethane and methanol||TPC, DPPH, oxygen radical absorbance, ORAC, and ABTS assay||Phenolic compounds||Sudjaroen and Thongkao |
Table 2 shows the phenolic and non-phenolic compound detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, chromatographic method or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Moreover, Table 2 described that the different kinds of mushrooms could be used to determine the antioxidant activity potential in several ways, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Further, Sriramulu and Sumathi  demonstrated that extract of edible
In addition, some researchers are investigated to study the antiangiogenic potential to prevent neurological disorders and hepatoprotective properties. A p-terphenyl compound is derived from two edible mushrooms that showed the anticancer effect to averts vascular endothelial growth factor with the presence of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity . Few researchers reported that benzoic acid derivative compounds such as be p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gallic, gentisic, homogentisic, vanillic, 5-sulphosalicylic, syringic, veratric, and vanillin obtained from diverse types of much room such as
5. Conclusion and concluding remarks
Mushroom is widely useful as food supplements and suitable for all the age groups due to their high content of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and mineral. Moreover, they contain various bioactive molecules such as polysaccharides, terpenoids, glycoproteins, antimicrobial compounds, antioxidants, etc. that can play a major role in the treatment of numerous diseases like improving immune strength, decreasing the cancer level in the body, reducing blood sugar level, inhibiting the multidrug resistant bacterial pathogen, and many more. In this review, we have focused on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of edible and non-edible mushrooms all over the world and their uses. We have found that few of the mushroom are producing wide variety of bioactive phenolic compounds such as pyrogallol, polysaccharides, flavanols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoid compounds that can be used to control various diseases like antitumor, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-hypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, and hepatoprotective activity. Mushrooms like
Authors are thankful to the DGAPA, UNAM grants IN202216 and IN205519, for their grateful support in completion of the book chapter.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that no conflict of interest for this publication.