Open access peer-reviewed chapter

# Recent Application of Bio-Alcohol: Bio-Jet Fuel

By Gi Bo Han, Jung Hee Jang, Min Hwei Ahn and Byung Hun Jung

Submitted: February 6th 2019Reviewed: September 13th 2019Published: December 16th 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.89719

## Abstract

Recently, the biomass-based energy production has been actively studied as a research and development area for reducing carbon emissions as a solution to global warming caused by the increase of carbon dioxide emissions. Especially, as the energy consumption in the air transportation field increases, the carbon dioxide emissions increase simultaneously. Therefore, the bio-jet fuel production technology is being actively developed to solve this problem. The bio-jet fuel manufacturing process is a process of manufacturing biomass-derived jet fuel that can replace the existing petroleum-based jet fuel. It includes an alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) process using bio-alcohol such as bio-butanol and bio-ethanol, oil-to-jet (OTJ) process using vegetable oil, and an F-T process using syngas obtained from gasification of biomass-based raw materials.

### Keywords

• bio-alcohol
• bio-ethanol
• bio-jet fuel
• manufacturing technology
• greenhouse gas reduction
• alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) process

## 1. Introduction

Bio-alcohol is an environment-friendly clean fuel for transportation application and convertible to various other fuel compounds. It is also a means of reducing greenhouse gas and fossil fuel consumption. Bio-alcohol includes various formulas such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol. R & D for commercialization of bio-butanol is currently active which can replace existing petroleum fuel or can be converted to other forms of fuel. Bio-ethanol is collectively called as bio-alcohol in view of worldwide total production volume and quantity in use. Bio-ethanol among other bio-alcohols is mainly considered in the present survey, especially related to its current trend of conversion technology to other fuel formulas. Korean domestic bio-alcohol technology boasts of its long history in alcohol liquor industries. However, its food-based raw material casts a negative perspective, and technical solution for diversion to nonfood-based raw material is to be sought after. As an example, bio-alcohol production from cellulosic biomass as raw material involves the introduction of breaking method for the strong chemical bonding of cellulosic biomass to improve conversion efficiency, which was made possible by pre-treatment technology. However, high production cost incurred from pre-treatment process technology and high enzyme cost for bio-treatment process are another technical barrier, and it has to be overcome by overall process and energy cost reduction.

About 100 billion liters (5 million TOE) of bio-ethanol is produced worldwide in 2014. The USA consumes 14.4 billion gallons of bio-ethanol per annum, the most significant quantity in the world. This is also manifested in Figure 1 where most of the bio-ethanol production is consumed in North and South America with comparatively similar amount consumed in Europe and China. As for bio-ethanol production, the USA and South America, especially Brazil, are well known for bio-ethanol production. Brazil was ranked first as a bio-ethanol exporter before 2010, but the USA surpassed Brazil as a prime exporter of bio-ethanol thereafter (Figure 2). This is attributed to significant growth in number of bio-ethanol producers such as ADM, POET Ltd., and Green Plains. Table 1 shows production scale of US bio-ethanol production companies.

ProducersProduction quantities
Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM)6.44 billion liters
POET Ltd6.06 billion liters
Green Plains5.68 billion liters
Valero5.3 billion liters
Flint Hills3.03 billion liters
Others33.31 billion liters

### Table 1.

Bio-ethanol production by major US domestic producers.

Bio-ethanol is well known for its direct application for transportation fuel as well as for various other fuels after conversion. The use of bio-ethanol is currently sought after as a fuel source for renewable energy such as hydrogen production and bio-jet fuel production. Worldwide attention is directed to efficient conversion of bio-ethanol to environment-friendly hydrogen and bio-jet fuel. Conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen and bio-jet fuel is surveyed.

## 2. Necessity for bio-jet fuel

Recent fuel consumption survey shows that 12% of transportation fuel is accounted for by aviation industry and it contributes 2% of greenhouse gas to environment pollution and global warming. To comply with 2015 Paris Climate Change Accord, improved energy efficiency and increased low-carbon bio-energy and fuel utilization (rate) in aviation industries are expected, and such efforts are in progress in various related fields. As examples of such efforts, airlines and aircraft manufacturers voluntarily set goals for carbon-neutral growth, and 50% reduction of greenhouse gases by 2050 with respect to 2005 criteria and various concrete ways are implemented. Ordinarily, electricity, solar energy, and hydrogen fuel are mentioned as means of low-carbon energy utilization in transportation fields [3]. As for aviation industries, the only technically viable means is limited to bio-jet fuel and its utilization. Therefore, long-term carbon reduction is only made possible by increased utilization of bio-jet fuel. Figure 3 shows IRENA’s future prospect for carbon emission by aviation industries. As shown in Figure 3, it was known that the 1.5% reduction of greenhouse gas is reportedly possible by both the utilization of bio-jet fuel and the increase in the energy efficiency resulting from aircraft design improvement, optimization of airport facility, and flight paths.

## How to cite and reference

### Cite this chapter Copy to clipboard

Gi Bo Han, Jung Hee Jang, Min Hwei Ahn and Byung Hun Jung (December 16th 2019). Recent Application of Bio-Alcohol: Bio-Jet Fuel, Alcohol Fuels - Current Technologies and Future Prospect, Yongseung Yun, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.89719. Available from:

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