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The x-ray is the only invention that became a regular diagnostic tool in hospitals within a week of its first observation by Roentgen in 1895. Even today, x-rays are a great characterization tool at the hands of scientists working in almost every field, such as medicine, physics, material science, space science, chemistry, archeology, and metallurgy. With vast existing applications of x-rays, it is even more surprising that every day people are finding new applications of x-rays or refining the existing techniques. This book consists of selected chapters on the recent applications of x-ray spectroscopy that are of great interest to the scientists and engineers working in the fields of material science, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, astrochemistry, instrumentation, and techniques of x-ray based characterization. The chapters have been grouped into two major sections based upon the techniques and applications. The book covers some basic principles of satellite x-rays as characterization tools for chemical properties and the physics of detectors and x-ray spectrometer. The techniques like EDXRF, WDXRF, EPMA, satellites, micro-beam analysis, particle induced XRF, and matrix effects are discussed. The characterization of thin films and ceramic materials using x-rays is also covered.