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Atomic Force Microscopy Investigations into Biology - From Cell to Protein
The atomic force microscope (AFM) has become one of the leading nanoscale measurement techniques for materials science since its creation in the 1980's, but has been gaining popularity in a seemingly unrelated field of science: biology. The AFM naturally lends itself to investigating the topological surfaces of biological objects, from whole cells to protein particulates, and can also be used to determine physical properties such as Young's modulus, stiffness, molecular bond strength, surface friction, and many more. One of the most important reasons for the rise of biological AFM is that you can measure materials within a physiologically relevant environment (i.e. liquids). This book is a collection of works beginning with an introduction to the AFM along with techniques and methods of sample preparation. Then the book displays current research covering subjects ranging from nano-particulates, proteins, DNA, viruses, cellular structures, and the characterization of living cells.