About the book
Waste in general is any substance (solid, liquid or gas) that has no direct use and is discarded permanently. Waste is considered hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: flammability, reactiveness, explosiveness, corrosiveness, radioactivity, infectivity, irritability, sensitizing, or bioaccumulativity. Today, the most important wastes are biomedical and food waste. Biomedical waste refers to any waste which is generated during diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals, or in research activities, production, and testing occurring thereto.
Contamination with biomedical waste and its impact on the environment are global concerns. Biomedical waste that has not been collected and disposed in accordance with the regulations can become a total environmental hazard and cause negative impact on human health and the environment. Medical centers including hospitals, clinics, and places where diagnosis and treatment are conducted generate waste that is highly hazardous and put people under risk of fatal diseases. On the other hand, food waste is commonly produced in all the steps of food life cycle, such as during agricultural production, industrial manufacturing, processing and distribution, and is even consumer-generated within private households. Food waste mostly contains high-value components such as phytochemicals, proteins, flavor compounds, polysaccharides, and fibers, which can be reused as nutraceuticals and functional ingredients. Adsorption is a practicable separation method for purification, along with bulk separation where surface characteristics and pore structures are the main properties in determining equilibrium rate. Managing waste materials on the whole is often unsatisfactory, especially in developing countries, and the unreasonable disposal of waste is a major issue worldwide. The following issues will be of particular interest for this book: effects of waste on environment and health, biomedical waste - storage, management, treatment, and disposal, biomedical waste contamination, food waste, potential applications of low-cost sorbents in agricultural and food sectors, biosorbents and bioadsorbents, adsorption of modified agricultural and biological wastes (biosorption), compounds recovered from food waste, and agricultural and food waste-derived sorbents.