About the book
Systemic therapy for advanced kidney cancer or metastatic renal cell carcinoma has greatly evolved over the last decade. The treatment landscape for advanced kidney cancer has evolved since the introduction of VEGF inhibitors. Currently, therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma include mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, new multikinase inhibitors (Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib, Tivozanib), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-directed therapy, cytokines, vaccines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) (e.g. Nivolumab, Opdivo®). VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy had been the standard therapy, and its use is evolving in the front-line setting with ICIs; cabozantinib provides superior progression-free survival versus sunitinib in intermediate- and poor-risk patients, by International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium criteria.
Recently, combination strategies involving contemporary immunotherapy have emerged as key opportunities to further shift the treatment landscape. Numerous combinations with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are compared to Sunitinib as the first-line treatment of mRCC. Thus, combination therapies involving ICIs could be the next standard of care and management in kidney cancer. With the expanding application of ICIs in advanced kidney cancer, the bar has been raised in evaluating ongoing combination strategies in this field. In this book, we will introduce and discuss a variety of systemic therapies including clinical trials adopted in advanced kidney cancer.