About the book
Fungi require a lot of organic nutrients for their biochemical processes. Manipulating the culture media can make significant changes in an organism's chemical composition. By using OSMAC (One Strain, Many Compounds) approach, various research groups were able to isolate additional secondary metabolites from a single strain by modifying the culturing media. Modifications of some parameters in culturing conditions such as pH, temperature, and light exposure can also diversify the fungi’s secondary metabolites. The temperature and pH of the broth can affect the activation or deactivation of the fungi’s enzyme involved in secondary metabolites production. Furthermore, light exposure, including the intensity and wavelength, is able to affect photoreceptors in some fungal species. For example, the production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium brevicompactum can be stimulated by red or blue lights.
Epigenetics is a study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes in DNA sequences. It refers to typically heritable biological mechanisms which facilitate stable yet reversible modifications of gene expression or phenotype state, without alteration of the underlying genetic code. In detail, epigenetic mechanisms allow organisms to control which genes are active at a given time. In eukaryotes, epigenetic mechanisms have essential roles in gene regulation, cellular differentiation, and genetic packaging. These epigenetic mechanisms give rise to functionality which DNA alone is generally incapable of providing. The regulation of enzymes that control secondary metabolites production can be achieved by modifying epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. Epigenetic modification can be inhibited by histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.All of these discoveries show that epigenome manipulation is a promising method to access the silent biosynthetic pathway in fungi that can stimulate the production of new secondary metabolites.
This book intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of different parameters like epigenetic modifiers, volatile compound, etc. on fungal growth and reproduction from various biotopes.