About the book
With ability to grow on any surface they adhere to, microorganisms form complex communities - biofilms, and within them, produce extracellular matrix in which cells grow. Biofilms can occur anywhere and they can affect people in natural, medical and industrial areas. For instance, biofilm formation on medical instruments such as catheters or implants often leads to difficult to treat chronic infections, as well as to tooth, skin and urinary tract infections. Biofilms cause serious problems, for example, with pipes in the factories and bodies of ships.
However, there are many benefits from a microorganism creating a biofilm, and therefore, biofilm formation is associated with symbiotic life.One of the benefits is not only providing resistance for pathogenic microorganism to antimicrobials but also to phagocytosis.
Furthermore, biofilms also act as diffusion barriers against small molecules. They represent the natural stationary phase of a microbial growth. During the stationary phase, microorganisms alter their physiology deeply by increasing the production of secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, pigments and other small molecules.
These secondary metabolites also function as signaling molecules initiating biofilm formation process or preventing biofilm formation by other organisms.
In this book, biofilm formation and its influencing factors and the effect of environmental contamination on biofilm will be discussed.