About the book
Sepsis is the body’s systemic response to infectious diseases, characterized by an increasing degree of organ dysfunction. Therefore sepsis is the final stage of the pathological condition of infections, with microbial etiology. Infectious diseases are caused by a very large number of infectious pathological agents.
The book will aim to consider and evaluate the main factors that move the scenario of infectious diseases and their possible evolution in the septic condition. In the body, there are complex defense mechanisms against potential bacterial pathogens. The microbial agents can have a transient coexistence in the host, without replication, causing only contamination; or they can have a stable active multiplication and therefore true infection. The infection disease can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. On the other hand, the characteristics of infectious agents are various: pathogenicity is the resistance to the host’s defensive factors as pH, temperature, etc., virulence lies in the biological features of microorganisms, invasiveness as the ability to overcome the host’s defense barriers, tumorigenesis as the production of exotoxins or endotoxins, finally, the Infectious agents charge that can cause disease and antibacterial resistance based on misuse of antibiotic therapy. The host’s defense mechanisms are represented by natural barriers, non-specific immunity, and specific immunity. The natural barriers of the body play an important role in infectious agents. Skin wholeness and some mucosal protections, as lysozyme in the salivary secretions, perform an effective action. Macrophages and histiocytes with the mechanical actions of the cough form a true filter of the respiratory system. Intestinal secretions and gastric acidity have a barrier effect and preserve the normal intestinal bacterial flora. The inflammatory response, by increased blood perfusion and vascular permeability, promotes the non-specific immune response with the cytokines, like IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, interferon. The specific immune response with the humoral and cellular immunities completes the body’s defenses.
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome opened by the immune system and coagulation, caused by the infectious activity of bacterial or viral agents. Severe sepsis is characterized by organ dysfunction or tissue hypoperfusion due to systemic inflammatory response and requires intensive therapy. Septic shock is a severe condition identified by hemodynamic instability, hypotension, despite the adequate infusion of fluids, and the evolution and worsening of organ dysfunction.