About the book
Biomineralization attributes to a mechanism in which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or strengthen existing tissues. These tissues are called mineral tissues. More than 60 biominerals have already been identified in the biological world. Biomineralization, serving among other things, building external skeletons, and bones. Thus biomineralization can be used to support the organism and to help it defend itself or, conversely, to get food. The biominerals produced can be of different types. For example, diatoms produce desiccated, while coral reefs secrete calcium carbonate. Finally, our teeth (enamel) and our bones are mainly hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate). According to fossil discoveries, biominerals could have appeared at least 750 million years ago. The most important applications for biomineralization are the medical applications, the removal of heavy metals from wastewater or contaminated soil, the biological fixation of soils, as well as the self-healing treatment of cracks in concrete. Accordingly, this book focuses on biominerals, their formation process and their applications in various fields.