About the book
Used in the beginning as stand-alone systems for the rockets guidance, the inertial navigation systems (INSs) have become core components, along with GNSS, in integrated navigators developed for high precision aerospace applications. Between the most important applications developed, based on the INS support, can be mentioned the navigation of aircraft, tactical and strategic missiles, spacecraft, submarines and ships. This large spectrum of applications was generated firstly due to the main advantage of the INS to be a completely autonomous system (immune to jamming and deception), and secondly due to its simplicity in implementation. Moreover, the permanent improvement of manufacturing technologies for the inertial detection, but also the important changes related to the power of the data processing systems, extended the range of INS applications. Based on the new MEMS and NEMS inertial sensors technologies, the INS market provides small and light inertial navigation systems, offering the capabilities to be used, besides the usual applications with aircraft, satellites, UAV and MAV, in a lot of military and civilian applications, including the human and animal motion capture.
On the GNSS side, GPS, which is currently known as the most popular positioning system, covers an extremely large area of applications. Besides the aerospace applications, the last two decades shown an increasing trend in the use of positioning and navigation technologies in land-vehicle navigation, including here autonomous car navigation systems, farming, emergency assistance, package delivery, fleet asset tracking and management, construction, collision avoidance, mining, and environment monitoring. However, the GPS is still affected by a reduction in positioning accuracy when the satellite signal is blocked, diffracted, or reflected, its applicability in hostile environments still being a challenge. Having characteristics complementary to GPS, the INS has been widely adopted to assist GPS-based navigation systems. An INS/GPS integrated navigation system is able to provide improved navigation performance in terms of accuracy, availability, and reliability over the GPS-only system.
This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview at the level of all components implied in the development of the Navigation Systems based on INS, GNSS or both of them, including here the inertial sensors and signal conditioning algorithms on inertial measurement units - IMU (denoising, temperature effects estimation and compensation, filtering, etc.), the calibration and alignment techniques for INS, the redundant configurations of INS and system integrity monitoring algorithms, the INS modeling and analysis, the trends in GNSS technology and applications, INS/GNSS integration architectures and data fusion algorithms, and the fully developed systems for various military and civilian applications.