About the book
A chronic condition is defined as a physical or mental health condition that lasts more than one year, causes functional limitations because of a disability, deteriorates quality of life, and requires long-term monitoring and treatment. It is also known that three-fifths of worldwide deaths are attributed to four major chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung diseases and diabetes mellitus. Globally, about one-third of adults suffer from more than one chronic condition and this situation has been strongly related with older age, undesirable lifestyle factors and low socioeconomic status. Although there is a lack of a consistent term and definition for those individuals, still the most commonly used term in the academic literature is multiple chronic conditions (MCC) which refers to the presence of two or more co-occurring chronic conditions (including non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic lung diseases, diabetes mellitus, depressive disorders, chronic kidney disease, arthritis, chronic pain, cognitive impairment and long-term communicable diseases such as diarrhea, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis) and tend to increase with age. Furthermore, certain chronic diseases (depressive disorders and chronic diseases, Alzheimer's disease and stroke, tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus, HIV/AIDS and cardiovascular diseases) occur more frequently in clusters, especially in developing countries. It is well known that certain modifiable risk factors (unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol use), non-modifiable risk factors (age, heredity, air pollution) and intermediate risk factors (high blood pressure, high fasting glucose, high cholesterol, high body mass index) play a role in the development of the MCC to varying degrees. Although the prevalence estimates for MCC are highly heterogeneous, gradually increasing health, economic and patient burden is a global priority due to a lack of joint guidelines, different screening and prevention requirements, a greater tendency to see specialists over primary care physicians, and elevated rates of emergency department presentations, hospital admissions, and polypharmacy. The purpose of this book project is to review the certain chronic health conditions what constitute MCC, to predict which groups of people at risk of MCC, and to emphasize potential areas for modification, novelty and management of this challenging condition.