About the book
One nanometer is the billionth of a meter and when the size of at least one of the dimensions of orderly arranged atoms in three-dimensional space is less than 100 nm it is called nanocrystal. Nanocrystals do not follow the law of classical mechanics as they enter the quantum realm. The reduction in size causes the surface area to increase in comparison to their volume which helps to enhance their mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties. For example, gold nanocrystals produce different colors in their colloidal suspensions as their sizes vary, which can be used as color changing cosmetics in the beauty product industry. Gold nanocrystals are already in use as labels in electron microscopy for biological samples or used as drug carriers, tumor detectors, inter-cellular delivery vehicles in gene therapy, radiotherapy dose enhancers, to name a few. Not only the biomedical but also chemistry and physics fields are immensely benefited from the numerous application of nanocrystals. Nanodimensional rotors and motors are now being fabricated for producing power inside nano electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), integrated with nano-transistors. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips are used for detecting stress, vibration at the atomic level. Graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT), diamond are the materials that form such nanocrystals in NEMS application. Self assembled monolayers (SAM) are formed by organic molecules with their heads attaching onto the substrate while the functional groups like thiols, silanes are kept away from the surface - in this way they can form 2 or 3 dimensional superlattices. Nanocrystals are also very important to understand the present day viral Covid-19 pandemic. The size of the virus varies from 50 nm to 200 nm. The coronavirus is a protein membrane encapsulated nucleocapsid (N) protein and RNA genome with about 20 nm long spike proteins all around them. So in order to fight the virus humans have to develop medicines and vaccines, which again, are made up with the nanocrystals.
This book project invites chapters from all the biology, chemistry, physics and engineering researchers, which will impact mankind with their nanocrystal research.