About the book
Shells are one of the special and, at the same time, widely used structures in civil engineering. Shells form a wide range of structures, including bridge decks, retaining walls, slabs, tunnel linings, dams, etc. The concrete structure formworks are also designed using steel shells usually. Shells can be made using various materials such as prestressed or reinforced concrete, steel plates, and even fabrics. Although the analysis, design, and construction of shell structures are slightly more complex than other types of structures, in many cases, such as fuel tanks, decks, and some underground structures, the use of shells is inevitable. Also, from an architectural point of view, in many cases, no other type of structure can be as beautiful as structural shells. Therefore, this book has covered all matters related to the history, analysis, design, and construction of shell structures. Also, the design of shells against special loads such as earthquakes, blasting, and wind has been considered. Special shell structures such as pneumatic and fabric shells are also described in detail.