Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Mining Techniques - Past, Present and Future

Abhay Soni

Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research


Coal Mining Techniques Contiguous Seam Extraction Sub-level Stoping Block caving Open Pit Mining Open Cast Stripping Sand Mining Aggregate Mining Dredging Uranium Ore Mining Hydraulic Mining Deep Sea Mining

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About the book

The industrial revolution and technological up-gradation over the years have brought about many changes in the mining techniques and processes worldwide and have made the mining of minerals, safe as well as competitive. Nowadays, both surface mines and underground mines for mineral excavation, are an indicator of economic growth and energy consumption for any mineral-rich country. Mining was art in older times. Indeed, mining excavation started with pick-axe and chisel way back in pre-Harappan times and pre-Christian era. 'Rathole mining' was operational in an earlier period for mining at shallow depth (underground method). But in the present time, it is turned from art to science because of the involvement of technologies and machinery. Mining techniques are many and categorized on the basis of the mineral type being excavated. Accordingly, fuel minerals (coal and lignite), industrial minerals, atomic minerals, metallic minerals (ore) non- metallic minerals and minor minerals are the broad categories of minerals, being mined worldwide. The run-of-mine or ROM is the term generally used for mineral/ore/material produced from the mine. Cleaned and concentrated ROM of metallic ore in particular when processed or beneficiated for the extraction of a mineral product - A higher-quality product, is termed as 'mineral processing'. The mineral products so produced may then undergo further concentration, refinement, smelting or conversion process to provide metal which is marketed and sold to users as consumer products.
If the excavation used for mining is entirely open or operated from the surface, it is usually referred to as 'surface mine'. The surface mine could be a 'pit mine' (open-pit mine) or a 'hill mine' and their mining techniques are designated as open cast mining and open cast stripping, respectively. If the ore /mineral excavation is carried out from openings below the earth’s surface with only the miner's entry from the surface it is called an 'Underground Mine'.

The book's scope is envisioned to cover surface mining and surface mine development, underground mining and its development including, special methods of mining (novel methods and technologies in mining). Thus, coal mining techniques, metal mining techniques, hydraulic mining and solution mining techniques etc., including their selection, can be described chapter-wise in this reference book. Only solid minerals can be included and discussed here including atomic minerals e.g. uranium and rare earth etc. It is significant to note here that the petroleum and natural gas and their production is not associated with this type of extraction. All such resources are under the mineral resource category but are associated with a separate industry having specialized technology of its own.

Mining and its consequences, stages of mining, unit operations of mining, impact of mining and statuary compliance for general applications etc. form part of the mining techniques. The details of the mining methodology, sequencing, layout and equipment used in the mine, distinguishes the mining method used in the excavation of mineral. Description of all these can be included in the book to make it more practical as well as useful. During the last two-three decades, great evolutionary progress in mining and excavation techniques/ methodology has been achieved in the industry in many areas. In today’s world, it is essential to highlight and include the application of computers in the mineral /mining industry, which is intended to be done in this book for mines and in mining engineering applications.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: September 25th 2019

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline Extended: Open for Submissions

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: May 4th 2020

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: July 23rd 2020

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

Book compiled, published and promoted

Expected publication date: September 21st 2020

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About the editor

Abhay Soni

Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research

Born on 22nd May 1963 at Chhindwada (M.P.) India, Dr. Soni graduated in Mining Engineering from Ravishankar University, Raipur, Chattisgarh in 1983. Completed his post-graduation from Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani and Ph. D. in Environmental Science and Engineering from Centre of Mining Environment, Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad in 1998. He was awarded the William Greenwood Scholarship of Association of Geo-Scientists for International Development (AGID), University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He had served Coal India Limited (at SECL subsidiary) and Department of Mining Engineering, Government Engineering College, Raipur (Chattisgarh) before joining CMRI (now CIMFR) as a scientist in October 1987. Dr. Soni has more than three decades of experience (>30 years) in research, academics and mining field in various areas of environment and sub-surface sciences. He has more than 10 years of experience in science / R&D administration too. He had visited the USA and U.K. in connection with research work and widely traveled across the country. Dr. A.K. Soni is currently Head of CSIR- CIMFR Nagpur office and engaged in research in mine environment and allied areas. His area of interest for research is 'Geo-hydrological problems related to mines”. In the past, he was associated with the development of eco-friendly techniques of mineral extraction and has worked for R&D in the area of 'Environmental Management in Fragile / SensitiveAreas with particular reference to mining operations and hill type areas ( Himalaya)”. He has developed an Environmental Degradation Index (EDI) for applications in mining in ecologically fragile areas and has a special interest in policy issues on mining and environment. Actively associated with technical and professional organizations and societies e.g. Institution of Engineers (India), Mining Engineers Association of India (MEAI), International Mine Water Association (IMWA) and Indian Society for Rock Mechanics and Tunneling Technology (ISRMTT), etc. He is associated with a large number of mining and tunneling projects in India and invited by Indian universities to deliver lectures and conduct examinations for post-graduate students. Associated with, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Nagpur University in the capacity of members in various technical committees. To his credit, he has more than 115 technical publications on environmental related topics in national and international journals, conference proceedings, workshops monographs, books, etc. in Hindi and in English and has handled more than 100 R&D projects in the capacity of Principal coordinator and Principal investigator. He has received the best R&D paper award from nationally accredited technical society viz. Indian Geotechnical Society (IGS) in 2003 and best citizen award in 2006. He had delivered lectures in reputed institutes like IIT - Roorkee, Government Engineering College (Now NIT)-Raipur, Indian School of Mines-Dhanbad and conducted training courses, seminar, workshop of both international and national importance. Several important events /functions e.g. World Environment Day, Engineers Day, etc .are organized by him in various capacities.

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