About the book
The world’s population is ageing. This is the most significant global transformations of the 21st century, with implications for nearly all sectors of society. By 2050, one in six people in the world will be over age 65 (16%), up from one in 11 in 2019 (9%). By 2050, one in four persons living in Europe and Northern America could be aged 65 or over. In 2018, for the first time in history, persons aged 65 or above outnumbered children under five years of age globally. The number of persons aged 80 years or over is projected to triple, from 143 million in 2019 to 426 million in 2050.
There is no single way of ageing, but as many different ageing processes as the elderly. Each elder reflects a singular event and requires personalized attention, evaluation and availability. Frailty in the elderly can be defined as a condition of marked vulnerability to adverse outcomes resulting from age or disease-associated decreased functional reserves in multiple physiologic systems. Cognitive decline and impaired global cognition have been generally linked to frailty. The cognitive frailty concept refers to the co-occurrence of mild cognitive impairment and physical frailty in the absence of a detected major neurocognitive disorder. There are numerous longitudinal studies that analyze the determinants that influence cognitive fragility - as a reduced "functional reserve" - without disabling consequences in everyday life. On the psychological level, the concept of frailty indicates a condition inherent to the human being, an intrinsic part of life.
The importance of a multidimensional evaluation of the elderly is now universally recognized to determine the real state of psychophysical well-being. A reliable evaluation cannot be separated from the analysis of the affective and relational components. Indeed, the cognitive, affective-behavioral and social aspects closely interact with the biomedical ones.
The strong impulse given to research on this topic has produced in recent years a large literature that documents the high level of complexity of the issue, for which it is necessary a reasoned multidimensional analysis able to integrate expertise of different disciplines.