Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Trends in the Development of Flame Retardants

Fahmina Zafar

Jamia Millia Islamia

A dynamic researcher working in the field of renewable resource-based polymeric protective coatings for past twelve years, holder of three registered patents, > 90 publications in peer-reviewed journals and books, presented >50 research papers in national and international conferences, reviewer of number of reputed journals, member of Asian Polymer Association and Swadeshi Science Movement, currently working as an Assistant professor at Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, India.


Nahid Nishat

Jamia Millia Islamia

Head and senior professor at the Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, with more than twenty years of research and teaching experience in Materials Chemistry, over 100 research publications, reviewer of a number of reputed journals, proprietor of an Indian patent.

Anujit Ghosal

University of Manitoba

A chemist specializing in Biochemistry, Polymer Chemistry, and Nanotechnology with the main focus on nanotechnology-enabled formulation and valorization of Agri-products, served as a postdoctoral researcher at the Beijing Institute of Technology.


Nanomaterials Fibrous Materials Texture-Based Stability Memory Materials Nanostructures Flame-Retardant Foams Coatings and Films Halogen-Free Materials Green Flame Retardants Metallic Coatings Polymeric Coatings Hybrid Coatings Green Coatings Micro and Nano Fillers

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About the book

Materials like paper, plastic, wood, nanomaterials, polymers, etc., are used in day-to-day life. These materials play a large role in industries like textiles, furniture (in the form of polyurethane foams), transportation, construction, electrical, and electronics. However, their organic nature and chemical composition make them prone to fire, which accidentally results in loss of property, economy, and life in case of sudden fire. To avoid these unwanted fire hazards, modifications based on structure, design, chemical composition, and other similar inputs are put in during the material formulation. Along with imparting good mechanical and chemical stability, inducing fire retardancy to these materials has become the need of the hour. Incorporation of additives which are flame-retardants, inorganic nanostructures, 3D crosslinkers, and specific molecules which can inhibit or extend flashpoints/ thermal stability of the material is mostly preferred. These flame-retardants reduce their flammability either by interfering physically (formation of a protective layer, fuel dilution, or cooling) or chemically (reaction in gas or condensed phase). The commonly adopted strategies for enhanced flame retardancy are the incorporation of endothermically decomposing compounds, inflammable fillers, char provoking substances, or materials that liberate gases during the fire, which act as a radical scavenger in the gas phase. Among all incorporation of halogenated fire, retardants are the most economical method. However, due to increasing health hazards and environmental concerns, their use has been limited, pushing the industries to switch toward halogen-free flame retardants. Despite being nontoxic and environmentally benign, halogen-free flame retardants require higher loading of inhibitors which enhances the overall cost of the material. As per the demand of the hour, renewable resource-based flame retardants have been investigated rapidly in the past few decades, extending the research to new dimensions where structure designing, computational projections, and composition of the materials play a pivotal role. This book aims to present an insight into flame-retardant materials, their advantages, recent advancements, and shortcoming, along with green and nano-based alternatives proposed by researchers. Furthermore, a broader idea of flame-retardancy, not only to those who are familiar with the topic but also to the people who are new to this field, will be highlighted.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: April 14th 2022

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline for chapter proposals: June 23rd 2022

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

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Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: August 22nd 2022

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: November 10th 2022

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

Book compiled, published and promoted

Expected publication date: January 9th 2023

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About the editor

Fahmina Zafar

Jamia Millia Islamia

Dr. Fahmina Zafar is a senior researcher working at the Department of Chemistry, JMI, New Delhi, India. Dr. Zafar has received her PhD (2006) and MSc (1999) degree in Chemistry from JMI. She has worked as a PI (DST WOS A), postdoctoral fellow (UGC Kothari Postdoctoral Fellowship) along with Scientist Pool, Research Associate, and Senior Research Fellow (CSIR) at the same Department. She has > 90 publications in peer-reviewed journals and books, and has presented >50 research papers in national and international conferences. Her research work involves the development of bio-based polymers, metallopolymers, organic-inorganic hybrids, coordination polymers, and nanocomposites for green environments in different fields including adsorption, antimicrobial, and corrosion-protective applications.

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Book chapters authored 7

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