About the book
Neuromodulatory devices are experiencing rapid growth, driven by an expansion in clinical applications, an evolution in deep brain stimulation procedures, and the development of novel, non-invasive technological options. These advances are promising for heretofore intractable or marginally tractable cognitive diseases and for adjunct therapies such as substance abuse. Early uses of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, for instance, have now moved from open to closed loop procedures that are employed in a widening range of etiopathologies, including not only the movement diseases, e.g., essential tremor and dystonia, but even psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Complementing DBS are new non-invasive magnetic technologies that can directly modulate cortical activity. Termed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), these hold promise for neurorehabilitative and addiction therapies. Notwithstanding the increase in technological and therapeutic options, however, neuromodulation continues to raise questions about its mechanisms of action and the efficacy of its treatment. The role of high frequency stimulation of DBS and that of ephaptic field effects in TMS in modulating cortical and non-linear oscillatory dynamics, for example, remain notable mechanistic uncertainties that impinge on technology and treatment design. This book will highlight not only the promise of progressive advances in neuromodulation but also review evidence about its premises that can guide technology design for a new generation of treatment options.