About the book
Gene expression is a process by which the genetic information is used in the synthesis of functional products including proteins and functional RNAs (e.g., tRNA, small nuclear RNA). This process is utilized by eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses to generate macromolecules for constituting cellular components and exhibiting living functions. Several steps in gene expression process could be regulated, such as transcription, post-transcriptional modification, translation, and post-translational modification. Regulation of gene expression modulates the production amount and timing of the functional products. Control of gene expression is critical to allow cells to produce their functional products when cells need them; in turn, this gives cells the flexibility to adapt to a variable environment and respond to external signals, stimuli and damages. Cellular structures and functions can also be controlled by regulation of gene expression. A phenotypic trait, the expression of genes in an observable way, is an obvious and measurable trait. The phenotype is variable which depends on the genetic make-up of the organism, and also that is influenced by the surroundings to which the organism is subjected across its morphogenesis, (including various epigenetic processes). In this book, we will explore the significance, mechanism, function and characteristics of gene expression and phenotypic traits.