About the book
Sintering is the process of compacting a solid mass of material or composites with the application of temperature and pressure without really melting them. Since the melting temperature of most materials especially ceramics is high, very often low temperature melting flux materials are mixed in small quantities to promote the compacting process without really having to go to high melting temperatures resulting in high-quality products at a lower cost. Sintering occurs in nature in mineral deposits. For example, Granite is a naturally occurring rock that is formed deep beneath the Earth's crust over millions of years when Magma or Lava cools and solidifies under heavy pressures. The slow cooling process from intense heat makes granite a strong and dense material. Artificial sand is produced by crushing such hard stones into small sand-sized angular shaped particles, washed and finely graded to be used as construction aggregate. It is an alternative to River Sand for construction purposes. A reverse of this process namely increasing the size of fine desert sand or sea sand involves high-temperature sintering with the assistance of low melting additives which include iron compounds. Impurity-doped semiconductors are used widely in the electronics industry or wide-bandgap inorganic compounds used widely in the lighting industry all involving suitable impurity doping and sintering at a suitable temperature to dope and properly stabilize such impurities. To impart sufficient strength in plastics either through Vanderwall forces or through cross-linking requires a suitable sintering/extrusion process. Pure iron occurring in nature is quite ductile. However, in steel which is man-made, small amounts of carbon and other elements doped at high temperatures act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations. Plastic wastes, E-wastes, other Scraps, and garbage wastes call for efficient recycling with suitable heating techniques. The book will highlight the intricacies, challenges, new sintering techniques, and applications which require innovations.