Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Ergonomics - Innovative Applications, Research and Guidelines for the Information Age

Pamela McCauley

University of Central Florida

The U.S. State Department awarded Dr. McCauley with the prestigious Jefferson Science Fellowship (JSF) for the 2015-2016 term.

Covering

Personal Protective Equipment Occupational Safety and Health Musculoskeletal Injuries Mobile Devices Distributed Learning Distance Learning Vehicle Ergonomics Ride-Share Driver Ergonomics Technology in Automobiles Home Office Office Ergonomics Ergonomics of Telework

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About the book

Technology advancements, innovations, and global pandemics have reinforced the need for timely, accurate and relevant applications of ergonomics in the international community. The need for research and expanded approaches to effectively apply ergonomics in product design, occupational settings, personal spaces, and service environments has grown with each area of innovation. Given the current digital or information age as well as the push toward innovation there exists a consistent need for ergonomics professionals to offer research, applications, and guidelines to ensure safety, reduce the likelihood of injury and increase usability features associated with new products and services.

As a result, a number of subgroups have emerged including ergonomics focused on the health care worker community, innovations to address the miniaturization of personal devices, studies on the ergonomics of healthy distance education strategies and the use of ergonomics to support workers in new areas such as ridesharing or individuals riding in automatically driven vehicles. All of these innovations have the “human” at the center of these systems and the need to develop and apply strategies that maximize the safety, health, and well-being of these humans remain the primary focus of the ergonomics community. Additionally, challenges facing the global health care community have further necessitated a broad and globally applicable understanding of occupational ergonomic principles and their application for the safety of first responders, essential service providers and health care workers around the world.

This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current state-of-the-art ergonomics research, applications, and guidelines that are positively impacting the global community.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: September 7th 2020

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline for chapter proposals: October 5th 2020

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

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Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: December 4th 2020

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: February 22nd 2021

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

Book compiled, published and promoted

Expected publication date: April 23rd 2021

All chapters are copy-checked and typesetted before being published. IntechOpen regularly submits its books to major databases for evaluation and coverage, including the Clarivate Analytics Book Citation Index in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection. Other discipline-specific databases are also targeted, such as Web of Science's BIOSIS Previews.

About the editor

Pamela McCauley

University of Central Florida

PAMELA R. MCCAULEY, PH.D., C.P.E. Dr. Pamela McCauley is an internationally recognized Industrial Engineering researcher, STEM advocate, university leader, seasoned entrepreneur, innovator and experienced federal Program Director. As an Industrial Engineering researcher, she is known for significant work in the development of fuzzy set theory based mathematical models, human engineering, ergonomics, biomechanics as well as engineering leadership and women’s leadership in STEM. She is also an acclaimed keynote speaker, a dedicated Professor, and the Director of the Ergonomics Laboratory in the Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems at the University of Central Florida. She is serving as the National Science Foundation Innovation Corps (I-Corps) Program Director. Dr. McCauley previously held the position of Martin Luther King, Jr. Visiting Associate Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is the author of over 100 technical papers, book chapters, conference proceedings and the best-selling ergonomics textbook, Ergonomics: Foundational Principles, Applications, and Technologies. Many of her leadership, diversity, innovation and STEM education related keynote talks draw from her research-based book; Transforming Your STEM Career Through Leadership and Innovation: Inspiration and Strategies for Women, which examines the growing need for leadership and innovation in America, particularly among women and STEM professionals. To inspire students to consider careers in STEM, particularly minorities and females, she authored, Winners Don’t Quit…Today they Call Me Doctor. Dr. McCauley is an award-winning educator and her teaching efforts have resulted in the receipt of both the College of Engineering Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching and the Teaching Incentive Program Award (TIP). She is also the recipient of the 2015 Black Engineer of the Year Award for Educational Leadership and the Promotion of College-Level Education. In 2017, after a nationwide search, the National Science Foundation (NSF) Computer Information Science and Engineering (CISE) Directorate selected Dr. McCauley to lead the Innovation Corps (I-Corps) Program. The NSF I-Corps program prepares scientists and engineers to extend their focus beyond the university laboratory and accelerates the economic and societal benefits of NSF-funded, basic-research projects that are ready to move toward commercialization. During her first year in this role, she has engaged the national innovation community as well as funding the first I-Corps Innovation Inclusion Summit. This Summit attracted over 260 academic institution participants including I-Corps grantees, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions and Tribal Colleges to promote and facilitate collaborative innovation. The U.S. State Department awarded Dr. McCauley the prestigious Jefferson Science Fellowship (JSF) for the 2015-2016 term. JSF’s are distinguished appointments to senior academics based on their stature, recognition, and experience in the national and international scientific or engineering communities, and their ability to rapidly and accurately understand scientific advancements outside their discipline area to effectively integrate this knowledge into U.S. Department of State/USAID policy discussions. As a JSF she was a member of the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). While at PEPFAR she researched the Healthcare Delivery System for HIV/AIDS in developing nations and created a new approach known as the Innovations, Methods, Processes and Critical Technologies (IMPACT) Model to assess opportunities for enhancing efficiencies and technology integration in healthcare service delivery. Dr. McCauley has the distinction of being a 2012 U.S. Fulbright Scholar Specialist Program Awardee for her US- New Zealand Human Engineering and Mobile Technology in High Consequence Emergency Management Research Program. Due to her extensive expertise in biomechanics, human factors, and ergonomic design, Dr. McCauley is a highly sought Certified Professional Ergonomist (C.P.E.) and nationally recognized Expert Witness. A provisional patent for a scientific social media matching technology to promote collaborative innovation (USPTO # 62/572,994) has been submitted. Dr. McCauley has held various leadership positions and has received numerous awards in recognition of her commitment, professional accomplishments and community outreach efforts in the business, technology, and education communities. She has received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Oklahoma, the Engineer of the Year Award from the Florida Engineering Society, and has been recognized by the Society of Women Engineers as Engineering Educator of the year. She has also been recognized as one of the Ten Small Business Women of the Year in Central Florida; and the Millennium Woman of the Year by the Millennium Woman Foundation. Dr. McCauley was elected as Councilor to the National Executive Advisory Board of the Association of Women in Science (AWIS) for the 2015–2018 terms. She previously served as a board member in numerous national and regional organizations including the Women of Color in Technology National Advisory Board, Central Florida Boys Scouts, the University of Oklahoma (OU) Industrial Engineering Advisory Board and College of Engineering Minority Engineering Advisory Board. In 2019, she was recognized as a Fellow of the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE) and selected as the Women of Color in Technology Conference’s “Technologists of the Year”. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pamela R. McCauley, Ph.D., CPE Summary of Career Achievements Leadership The National Science Foundation (NSF) Computer Information Science and Engineering (CISE) Directorate selected Dr. McCauley to lead the Innovation Corps (I-Corps) Sites Program in 2017. The NSF I-Corps program prepares scientists and engineers to extend their focus beyond the university laboratory and accelerates the economic and societal benefits of NSF-funded, basic-research projects that are ready to move toward commercialization. During her first year in this role, she has engaged the national innovation community as well as designing and leading the first I-Corps Innovation Inclusion Summit. This Summit attracted over 260 academic institution participants including I-Corps grantees, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions and Tribal Colleges to promote and facilitate collaborative innovation. Throughout her career, Dr. McCauley has served in an array of leadership positions within the university, professional societies, and private industry. These leadership positions have included chairing university committees, serving as chair or co-chair of national conferences, leading interdisciplinary, multi-university research teams, and serving as Chief Technology Officer and Chief Executive Officer of three high-tech start-up firms. These positions required the use of numerous skills including strategic plan development and execution, financial management, team building, advocacy development and establishment of strategic collaborations. Research Dr. McCauley received funding in the 2016-’17 academic year, from the World Bank to conduct an international research project titled: A Malawi Time & Motion Study for Efficiency in HIV/AIDS Healthcare Service Delivery. This study was performed as part of the World Bank’s technical support to Malawi in Africa, in partnership with the University of Central Florida Department of Industrial Engineering in the United States. The objective of the study was to apply industrial engineering principles, specifically timed & motion studies to analyze the Malawi HIV/AIDS healthcare service delivery system to promote efficiency, sustainability and the introduction of innovative technologies to support HIV/AIDS health care workers in developing nations. In 2015, Dr. McCauley was selected as a Jefferson Science Fellow, with the US State Department. The Jefferson Science Fellowship serves as an innovative model for engaging the American academic science and engineering communities in U.S. foreign policy. Her research topic focused on “Promoting Sustainability through Systemic Introduction of Innovation and Technology in HIV/AIDS Healthcare Service Delivery in Developing Nations” “Jefferson Science Fellowships are prestigious appointments to senior academics based on their stature, recognition, and experience in the national and international scientific or engineering communities, and their ability to rapidly and accurately understand scientific advancements outside their discipline area in order to effectively integrate this knowledge into U.S. Department of State/USAID policy discussions.” In 2014-’15 academic year, Dr. McCauley was funded by NASA, Kennedy Space Center to conduct ergonomics research to support the development of innovative human-centric designs. The objective of this research was to assess and design a NASA firing room and facility layout to meet the dynamic and evolving needs of a diverse aerospace community. The University of Central Florida team was tasked with two objectives: 1) the design of a human centric firing room module that has an innovation component and promotes collaboration and 2) Creating a comprehensive facility layout that promotes modular design features and meets the holistic firing room operational requirements. Additionally, in 2012, she was selected as a U.S. Fulbright Scholar (Fulbright Specialist Program Awardee): US-New Zealand Award, August 15, 2012. Her research topic considered the scientific issues concerning the “Human Engineering and Mobile Technology in High Consequence Emergency Management.” “The Fulbright Program is the flagship international educational exchange program sponsored by the U.S. government and is designed to ‘increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries’.” Dr. McCauley received a Fulbright award to conduct research in New Zealand where she introduced the results of her National Science Foundation-funded research on human factors and ergonomics in disaster management to an international audience of collaborators. As a researcher, Dr. McCauley has an impressive record of achievement in addressing critical issues such as fuzzy set theory based predictive models, human factors in information security, human factors and ergonomics in large scale disaster management with international collaborators including Romania, New Zealand, and Portugal. Additionally, she has been successful in consistently securing research funding throughout her career from esteemed agencies such as The National Science Foundation, the Defense Information Systems Agency, the National Aeronautics, and Space Administration as well as from private corporations. Her publications on the application of fuzzy linguistic analysis in ergonomics represent novel and useful contributions to basic knowledge in the field. She has extended her research in model development to address critical emerging areas of human engineering such as information security and global response to disaster management. The significance and quality of this research are demonstrated by the funding received for these initiatives from the National Science Foundation and the Defense Information Systems Agency. Additionally, the finding of these studies have been published in prestigious journals and at conferences including the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Fuzzy Sets and System and Applied Ergonomics. Dr. McCauley authored the internationally used ergonomics textbook; Ergonomics: Foundational Principles, Application, and Technologies, published by Taylor & Francis. The textbook is a comprehensive and turn-key Ergonomics text based on Dr. McCauley’s twenty years of experience in the field. In keeping with her commitment to excellence, she developed a student manual, instructor manual, laboratory assignment and a suite of course notes as useful resources to accompany the textbook, providing professors an extensive package that supports teaching a comprehensive and dynamic ergonomics course for multiple learning styles of students. Dr. McCauley also authored Transforming Your STEM Career Through Leadership and Innovation, which offers valuable research-based information on what it means to be a leader and innovator and guides the reader through the process of discovering and developing leadership and innovation strategies. This book skillfully integrates leadership and innovation principles with personal examples and profiles of inspirational women worldwide. Her newest book, The Essentials of Engineering Leadership and Innovation, is underpinned by years of applied experience in engineering settings and is designed to develop and prepare engineers as leaders to accept the technical and managerial challenges that they will face as professionals. Entrepreneurship Dr. McCauley has been an entrepreneur for over twenty five-years, leading numerous small businesses, as President and Chief Technology Officer. In this capacity, she has led diverse teams consisting of industry and academic collaborators, developed strategic initiatives and managed budgets more than 1.5M annually for projects supporting the Department of Defense, National Science Foundation, NASA and private industry. As an entrepreneur, she has developed software and innovative human factors processes for clients in the public and private sector. In 2017 and 2016, her company was the recipient of two National Science Foundation Innovation Corps Site grants from the University of Central Florida I-Corps Site. The results of the NSF I-Corps program outcomes translated into Small Business Innovative Research Grant Proposals and the filing of a provisional patent application with the US Patent and Trademark Office (Title of Invention: Systems and Process for Weighted Matching of Researchers to Research Projects; 62/572,994). From 1999 to 2001, Dr. McCauley led a team of engineers in human factors focused operational test and evaluation of the Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS). The JBPDS is a suite of automated systems developed for various branches of the Department of Defense to automatically detect the presence of biological threats. As the leader of this project, Dr. McCauley developed the evaluation methodology, data collection, and analysis approach. The project was over the course of twelve months, and in that time, she moved her team to work on site at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, assigned team members to U.S. Navy ships and spent countless hours at other military locations to evaluate all configurations of the JBPDS system. Because of this evaluation, the team produced significant findings that lead to changes and enhancements in the design of the JBPDS system. The national importance of this work was not fully understood until the events of 9/11. The JBPDS system that was evaluated and improved by Dr. McCauley’s team was deployed to the Pentagon and other high- risk locations to detect the presence of biological threats. As an entrepreneur, Dr. McCauley has continued to lead significant applied research including projects for the US Army Corp of Engineers, (a suite of human-centric simulations to support disaster management response), the Army Research Laboratory, (fuzzy set theory based modeling of human cortical dynamics) and multiple projects for private corporations such as Raytheon and SAIC. Her achievements as an industrial engineer and entrepreneur led to an invitation to appear on the national programs such as To the Contrary on PBS and MSNBC’s The Big Idea with Donny Deutsche. Education Dr. McCauley is an exceptional classroom teacher who has the uncommon ability to present course material in an interesting and enjoyable way for students, while she maintains high expectations for student achievement in her courses. The evaluations of her teaching prepared by her students are very strong, with frequent references to her energy, enthusiasm, and excitement. She is a former recipient of the UCF Teaching Incentive Program (TIP) Award, the Society of Women Engineers Award and other recognition demonstrating her strong teaching commitment. Her influence as a teacher extends well beyond the classroom. Through her actions, she teaches aspiring engineers about professionalism, integrity, and character. The same qualities that make her an excellent teacher also make her an extremely effective recruiter of students for the College of Engineering and Computer Science and the IEMS Department. She stresses to her students the importance of setting ambitious personal goals and the persistence it takes to reach those goals. She is a role model to students and professionals across the globe as she embodies the power of dedication, determination, and resilience. Dr. McCauley’s teaching integrates various aspects of her extensive research and entrepreneurial experiences to create real world applications for her students. She teaches the graduate core courses in Human Engineering and advises students at the Ph.D. and M.S. level. She has served as the major professor to seventeen Ph.D. students, multiple M.S. students and introduced scores of undergraduates to research. In fact, she consistently ranks among the top 3 UCF IEMS faculty in the graduation of Ph.D. students. It is worth noting that of these Ph.D. graduates, three have been African American females and 2 African American males. At a time when universities often place greater emphasis on research by doctoral students, Dr. McCauley has been a champion of undergraduate participation in faculty research projects. She welcomes the opportunity to work with inquisitive and industrious students on challenging research projects. In fact, 85% of these undergraduate students have been females and two of these all female teams placed in regional and national undergraduate research competitions sponsored by the National Society of Black Engineers. One team of UCF students placed third nationally and a team of research student that she supported while at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology placed first in the National Society of Black Engineers Regional Undergraduate Research competition. The two UCF students have since completed the Bachelors and Masters’ degrees in Industrial Engineering and have promising careers as industrial engineers in industry. Even at the undergraduate level, Dr. McCauley demonstrates a continual impactful influence on her students. Service and Outreach Dr. McCauley has an exemplary record of service to the profession and the global scientific community. Her UCF and local service activities include her interest in promoting graduate study as this lead her to create and deliver a series of Introduction to Research Workshops for the UCF Chapter of the Institute for Industrial and Systems Engineers. Additionally, she’s served as a repeat speaker for the UCF Leadership Empowerment Program. Additionally, she served on the IISE Annual Convention Planning Committee in 2017-’18. She is a frequent supporter, speaker and participant in UCF programs including the GEMS Mentoring program, RAMP Scholars, EXCEL Program and Camp Connect. Dr. McCauley has been a consistent supporter of students and the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE), by providing lectures to regional meetings as well as strongly encouraging IISE student participation in her research. Additionally, she has published and consistently presented at IERC meetings, winning Best Paper Award in Human Factors at the 2006 IERC meeting. In addition to service to IIE, she serves as an advocate and recruiter for the Industrial Engineering field nationally, particularly in the minority and female areas. As a direct result, numerous students have pursued careers in IE where they may not have even known about the profession without her involvement in outreach activities in these communities. Her tireless service has been recognized through awards such as induction into the University of Oklahoma College of Engineering Distinguished Graduate Society, Engineer of the Year by the Florida Engineering Society, Outstanding Woman of Color in Technology, IIE Cover Story, and the Millennium Woman of the Year and numerous other awards and recognition. Throughout her career she had been invited to speak at local, regional, national and international meetings, delivering more than 100 invited lectures in her career. In 2010, she was elected to serve as the U.S. representative to the International IntelliCIS COST Action Committee – A European Based Research Committee focused on international disaster management. She has been called upon to serve on numerous committees, editorial boards, and guest editorials for journals and advisory boards on a national and international level. Advocacy, Relationship Development & Collaboration Establishment Dr. McCauley is a tireless advocate, spokesperson and role model in the promotion of Industrial Engineering, STEM education, STEM entrepreneurship and innovation, particularly for those under-represented in STEM. As a result, she is regularly called on to serve as keynote speaker, participate in national workshops and share her perspectives on success strategies for students and professional in STEM fields. She previously held board positions with national organizations including the National Center for Simulation and the Women’s Engineering Program Advocate Network (WEPAN). She presently serves on the Board of Directors for the Association for Women in Science (AWIS) and formerly served on the Diversity Advocacy Board at Worcester Polytechnic and is on the Presidents Research Advisory Board for the College of the Bahamas. She has advocated the significance and impact of STEM educational goals, opportunities and STEM careers in various print media and on numerous television programs. As a professor and entrepreneur, Dr. McCauley has an extensive history of relationship development and collaboration establishment to support educational, research and outreach initiatives. She has focused relationship development in the area of academic institutions, private corporations, and federal agencies. She has established collaborations with universities including; Massey University in New Zealand in the area of Human Factors in Disaster Management, the New Universities of Lisbon Nunes, Embry-Riddle University, and the University of South Florida collaborations with corporations including Harris Corporation, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, SAIC and numerous small businesses. Additionally, she has established relationships with federal agencies including NASA, the Army Corp of Engineers, Army Research Lab, NAVAIR and the U.S. State Department. Impact on the University Community Since arriving at UCF in May of 1993, Dr. McCauley has consistently contributed to the University’s goals in the pursuit of excellence, global partnership development and service to the community. She has built a world-class Ergonomics Lab at UCF that conducts internationally recognized research for prestigious agencies including the National Science Foundation, NASA, US Department of Defense and The World Bank. She has established international and national partnerships that were funded by the National Science Foundation, NASA and corporate sponsors including an international workshop in Lisbon focused on Human Factors, Sensor Technology and Logistics in Disaster Management. Most recently, she established a collaboration that was funded by the World Bank to conduct an international research project between the University of Central Florida and Stellenbosch University in South Africa. Dr. McCauley has been a consistent role model, leader and resource for students across the UCF campus, particularly female and minority students. She has extensively engaged undergraduates and graduate students in her research through informal and formal UCF Programs including the following: • Mentor in UCF EXCEL Program 2010 – 2016: Mentor to female undergraduate engineering students • Mentor in UCF RAMP Program 2010 – 2012, 2014: Mentor to female undergraduate engineering students • UCF Graduate Student Summer Mentoring Program (2006, 2007, 2008, 2011) • UCF mentor to two Kennedy Space Center NASA Scholars • Over 50% of undergraduate mentees/protégés have obtained graduate degrees As a faculty member, she served as the advisor to the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) for two terms that totaled over 10 years and co-advisor to the Society for Women Engineers (SWE) for 6 years. Dr. McCauley ranks among the most productive IEMS and CECS faculty in the production of Ph.D. graduates, particularly women and minority graduates; specifically, 47% of her Ph.D. graduates have been female and 27% of her Ph.D. graduates were African American. Due to her achievements related to diversity in STEM, she was elected to the Association for Women in Sciences’ National Governing Board and invited to serve as an expert to the World Intellectual Property Organization of the United Nations.

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