Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Elaeis guineensis

Hesam Kamyab

University of Technology Malaysia

A Visiting Researcher Scholar at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, appointed as a visiting researcher from the University of Illinois Chicago in 2016. Dr. Hesam Kamyab was awarded the Young Water Professional Awards by International Water Association in 2014 in Taipei, Taiwan.

Covering

Palm Oil Oil Palm Phenolics Carotenoids POME Treatment Technology By-product Biomass Waste Environmental Impact Sustainability Nutrition Food Security

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About the book

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil extracted from the mesocarp of the oil palm fruit, mainly the Elaeis guineensis African oil palm and to a lesser degree, from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa. Oil palm is the most profitable crop of vegetable oil per unit area and is important to economy of developing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. However, due to the impact it has on biodiversity, it is also extremely controversial. The expansion of oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, includes the conversion of forests, and other forms of land in the landscapes that provide the livelihoods of clan members. The way this expansion takes place makes it important to understand the variables associated with why businesses are looking for frontier lands and what externalities are created during both the periods of land acquisition and plantation growth. We find that investors are encouraged to profit from timber harvested from plantation land clearing, an operation promoted by the local government. Also land acquisition and plantation growth have resulted in externalities to indigenous landowners in the form of time and money wasted. The reduced health of people due to the loss of livelihoods and the effect on food security are other externalities.

Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. Palm oil has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a major constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a significant source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family. Palm oil sludge or palm oil mill effluent (POME) is wastewater generated by processing oil palm and consists of various suspended materials. POME has a very high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which is 100 times higher than municipal sewage. The effluent also contains a high concentration of organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrient contents. POME is a colloidal suspension consisting of 95–96% water, 0.6–0.7% oil and 4–5% total solids, including 2–4% suspended solids originating from a mixture of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater.

In terms of production, export, trade, and consumption, palm oil is the leading edible oil globally. With the bulk of palm oil used in foods, its role is well known in human nutrition. In addition to being a source of calories, the oil palm is a source of useful micronutrients, including β-carotene and tocotrienols (vitamin E isomers), due to its position as dietary fat. Energy-efficient usage is the key issue for our low-carbon society in future. The importance of the development of innovative energy materials and processes were well recognized for efficient energy systems. These, after extraction, have been extensively studied. In addition, to tackle vitamin A deficiency, unrefined "red palm oil" has been used. A water-soluble fraction of palm oil that is phenolic-rich has been available over the last decade and has also been the subject of more recent studies

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: January 26th 2021

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline Extended: Open for Submissions

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: April 24th 2021

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: July 13th 2021

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

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Expected publication date: September 11th 2021

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About the editor

Hesam Kamyab

University of Technology Malaysia

Dr.Hesam Kamyab is a Visiting Researcher Scholar at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in 2020. Dr. Kamyab was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow for 3 years in the Department of Engineering at UTM in 2017. He was appointed as a visiting researcher from the University of Illinois Chicago (UIC) in 2016. He obtained a Master of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Biotechnology) at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). He earned PhD in Civil Engineering in the field of Environmental Engineering at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). He was awarded the Young Water Professional Awards by International Water Association (IWA-YWP) in 2014 at Taipei, Taiwan. Moreover, He received an outstanding Reviewer Award in the Journal of Cleaner Production (Elsevier) and Clean Technologies Environmental Policy (Springer) in 2017. He was appointed as the Junior Board Member in the Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier (IF: 7.246) following his active paper review role. Also, he was appointed as managing guest editor in Energy Journal, Elsevier (IF: 6.082). He has a chair in IWA Emerging Water Leader (EWL). He has published more than 80 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

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