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In any normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg moves into the fallopian tube towards the uterus, where the implantation takes place on the 16th-18th day of gestational age and begins to be developed. In cases of non-intrauterine pregnancies, th
Antiphospholipid syndrome is likely to be involved in a small percentage of infertility. It is mainly associated with repeated miscarriages, secretion of cytokines, and growth factors that affect both ovulation, fertilization, and implantation, as well as a previous ectopic pregnancy in the fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancy is linked to taking drugs to induce ovulation, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism associated with hormone intake and fallopian tube damage is not yet known.
Fertilization of the egg with the sperm under normal conditions occurs in the fibrous part of the fallopian tube. After 3-4 days the fertilized egg reaches the uterus, where the blastocyst within 2 to 4 days may be in a state of immersion in the endometrial tissue. Thus, the implantation takes place on the 20th-21st day of the 4-week menstrual cycle. The pathology of the function of the fallopian tubes is most often associated with inflammatory processes of any etiology. Non-specific infection plays a predominant role, the spread of which contributes to abortion, intrauterine contraception, diagnostic intervention and the occurrence of obstetric and perinatal complications.
In recent years, the increasing incidence of chlamydial infection has been linked to the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Along with the inflammatory nature of the structure and function of the fallopian tubes, endometriosis also seems to play an important e localization may be ovarian, cervical or intra-abdominal, but in most cases it is tubal. The incidence of ectopic pregnancies in the USΑ has at least quadrupled in recent years with the probability nowadays standing at 20 per 1000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy in the USA is reported to be the cause of death in 10% of obstetric deaths, but it is important to note that most of these deaths are bleeding-related and preventable.
A clear trend of increasing the frequency of ectopic pregnancies has been observed in the last ten years, which is triggered by two main reasons. On the one hand, the localization of inflammatory processes in the internal genitals is constantly increasing, while at the same time, the number of surgeries on the fallopian tubes is increasing in order to improve a woman's reproductive capacity. Τhe number of women using intrauterine and hormonal methods of contraception is also increasing and ovulation inducers are increasingly being introduced into the practice of infertility treatment.
On the other hand, diagnostic capabilities have been improved in recent years by allowing detection of intolerance and even remission of ectopic pregnancy. Currently, an ectopic pregnancy occurs from 0.8-2.4% of cases that are born. In 4-10% of cases, it is repeated. Ectopic pregnancy often occurs as a result of tubal pathology.
Risk factors include smoking, inflammation of the pelvic organs as a result of chlamydia or gonorrhea, and endometriosis, conditions that lead to the formation of scar tissue in the fallopian tubes.role.
The role of invasive procedures for the treatment of the causative agents of structural abnormalities of the fallopian tubes in the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is becoming increasingly crucial and even to such an extent that the introduction of microsurgery does not exclude the risks.