Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Ectopic Pregnancy

Panagiotis Tsikouras

Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini

Dr. Panagiotis Tsikouras has authored and co-authored multiple peer-reviewed scientific papers and presented works at many national and international conferences. His contributions have acclaimed recognition from honorable subject experts around the world. Dr. Tsikouras has great experience in check control of high-risk pregnancies such as ART pregnancies, twin pregnancies, teenage pregnancies. Except for this, he is responsible for the termination of high pregnancies.


Nikolaos Nikolettos

Democritus University of Thrcae

Werner Rath

Kiel University

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Georg-Friedrich Von Tempelhoff

St. Vinzenz Krankenhaus


Differential Diagnosis Early Diagnosis Abortion Intrauterine Pregnancy Surgery Methotrexate Salpingostomy New Aspects Markers Endometriosis Diagnosis Management

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In any normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg moves into the fallopian tube towards the uterus, where the implantation takes place on the 16th-18th day of gestational age and begins to be developed. In cases of non-intrauterine pregnancies, th
Antiphospholipid syndrome is likely to be involved in a small percentage of infertility. It is mainly associated with repeated miscarriages, secretion of cytokines, and growth factors that affect both ovulation, fertilization, and implantation, as well as a previous ectopic pregnancy in the fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancy is linked to taking drugs to induce ovulation, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism associated with hormone intake and fallopian tube damage is not yet known.
Fertilization of the egg with the sperm under normal conditions occurs in the fibrous part of the fallopian tube. After 3-4 days the fertilized egg reaches the uterus, where the blastocyst within 2 to 4 days may be in a state of immersion in the endometrial tissue. Thus, the implantation takes place on the 20th-21st day of the 4-week menstrual cycle. The pathology of the function of the fallopian tubes is most often associated with inflammatory processes of any etiology. Non-specific infection plays a predominant role, the spread of which contributes to abortion, intrauterine contraception, diagnostic intervention and the occurrence of obstetric and perinatal complications.
In recent years, the increasing incidence of chlamydial infection has been linked to the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Along with the inflammatory nature of the structure and function of the fallopian tubes, endometriosis also seems to play an important e localization may be ovarian, cervical or intra-abdominal, but in most cases it is tubal. The incidence of ectopic pregnancies in the USΑ has at least quadrupled in recent years with the probability nowadays standing at 20 per 1000 pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy in the USA is reported to be the cause of death in 10% of obstetric deaths, but it is important to note that most of these deaths are bleeding-related and preventable.
A clear trend of increasing the frequency of ectopic pregnancies has been observed in the last ten years, which is triggered by two main reasons. On the one hand, the localization of inflammatory processes in the internal genitals is constantly increasing, while at the same time, the number of surgeries on the fallopian tubes is increasing in order to improve a woman's reproductive capacity. Τhe number of women using intrauterine and hormonal methods of contraception is also increasing and ovulation inducers are increasingly being introduced into the practice of infertility treatment.

On the other hand, diagnostic capabilities have been improved in recent years by allowing detection of intolerance and even remission of ectopic pregnancy. Currently, an ectopic pregnancy occurs from 0.8-2.4% of cases that are born. In 4-10% of cases, it is repeated. Ectopic pregnancy often occurs as a result of tubal pathology.
Risk factors include smoking, inflammation of the pelvic organs as a result of chlamydia or gonorrhea, and endometriosis, conditions that lead to the formation of scar tissue in the fallopian tubes.role.

The role of invasive procedures for the treatment of the causative agents of structural abnormalities of the fallopian tubes in the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is becoming increasingly crucial and even to such an extent that the introduction of microsurgery does not exclude the risks.

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Panagiotis Tsikouras

Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini

CURRICULUM VITAE PROFESSOR DR. PANAGIOTIS TSIKOURAS OBSTETRICIAN-GYNECOLOGIST DEMOCRITUS UNIVERSITY OF THRACE ,GREECE I was born in Didymoteicho on June 2-6, 1962. I am married with two children, one son and one daughter. I speak fluently German and English language. I graduated from the 1st High School of Didymoteicho in 1980.In the same year, after successfully passing the Hellenic entrance exams, I enrolled in the Department of Economics of the Aristotle University inThessaloniki.1980-1981 German Language Preparation at the following Schools berlitz schule in Freiburg Germany, neue sprachschule in Freiburg Germany, goethe institut Freiburg Germany Vorkurs University Heidelberg.During the period 1981-1982 preparation for University in a German University at Studienkolleg University of Heidelberg. Enrollment in medical university of Freiburg October 1982 after successful exams at Freiburg University School of Medicine in Germany. In November 1988, after 6 years of study, I received my Bachelor of Medicine degree. I completed my Phd and received the diploma of thesis in Freiburg University School of Medicine on November 9, 1989 with a degree of (very good) cum laude. From December 1988 to December 1989 I worked as a specialized physician in Radiological and Nuclear Medicine at the Freiburg Diakonie-Karlsruhe-Germany University Hospital From 01.01.1990 to 31.03.1993 I worked as a specialized physician in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic of the University of Göttingen From 01.04.1993 to 01.02.1995 completing my specialty in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University Midwifery-Gynecology Clinic of Aschaffenburg-Würzburg University Hospital. On 22 February 1995, after successful exams, I received the title of Special Obstetrician-Gynecologist. Munich - Professor DR.kröner During the period 22/02/1995 - 30/08/1995 after receiving my specialty I worked as (Consultant in the Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic of the University Hospital of Aschaffenburg-Würzburg, Germany. During this time, along with my basic clinical service, I worked with rotation in the Departments-Laboratories: Gynecologic Oncology-Andrology-Gynecological Urology-Mastology and Doppler-Ultrasound I served in the military service from September 1996 to September 1997 in the Air Force.From 30.10.1995 to 30-12-1995 I served as a specialized assistant in the Gynecological Clinic of 251 GN. Aviation. Also, during my military service I volunteered (01-01-1996 to 27-08-1996) for the Midwifery-Gynecological Clinic of Didymoteich Hospital as a specialized external physician. From 27-09-1996 to 16.11.1999 I worked first as a medical doctor at the Rural medical health center Soufli and then as Consultant at the department of obstetrics and gynecology of DUTH Clinic. I have participated as a Surgeon and as an assistant in a large number of Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries, I also train in Obstetrics and Surgery Gynecology Consultant doctor in the department of Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic of DUTH and participated in the education of 5 and 6 year medical students.From 07-07-1997 to 16.11.1999 I was the Head of the department of the Family Planning Center of the DUTH On 16th-11th-1999 (an Lecturer in Obstetrics-Gynecology at the School of Medicine of the DUTH From 17.11.1999 to 2003 I worked as a Lecturer in Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic of DUTH. On the 16th-12th, 2003 I became Assistant Professor of Obstetrics-Gynecology at the School of Medicine of the DUTH after positive election of all univerity members From 24.06.2004 to 18.03.2008 I worked as an Assistant Professor at Obstetrics - Gynecology Clinic of DUTHFrom 01-5th 2006 until 31-10th 2006 I subspecialized at the University of Würzburg Medical School (Klinikum Aschaffenburg-Akademisches Lehrkrankehaus der Universität Würzburg) in the subjects of Rectal Minor Pelvic Surgery-Breast Surgery and Gynecologic Surgery as well as in Gynecology approach and treatment of climacteric and menopausal disorders with active participation in research protocols of the above clinic.On 19-3-2008, I became an Assistant Professor of Obstetrics-Gynecology at the School of Medicine of the DUTH. after positive election of all univerity membersFrom 19-3rd 2008. Until 29.04.2013 I worked as an Assistant Professor in Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic of DUTH. From 01-8th 2011 to 31-01-2012 Clinikum Aschaffenburg-Teaching Hospital at the University of Würzburg Medical School and I subspecialized for a second time in the subjects of Minor Pelvic Risk Surgery and Active Breast Surgery as well as in Pediatric Surgery research protocols of the above clinic.From 30.04.2013 I became Associate Professor of Obstetrics-Gynecology at the School of Medicine of DUTH after positive election of all Univerity members and I have been working till now as an Associate Professor of Obstetrics-GynecologyFrom 22.02.2019 I became Professor of Obstetrics-Gynecology at the School of Medicine of DUTH after positive election of all univerity members My Clinical and Surgical activity covers the entire spectrum of Obstetrics-Gynecology (Perinatal-Fetal Medicine, Surgical Gynecology, Breast Surgery, Gynecological Oncology and Gynecological Endoscopy). I have been in charge of the Departments of Obstetrics, Outpatient Medicine,Participation in Obstetrics Gynecology courses Manosmed University (Mastology association of northen and southern Mediterranean mobile university of mastology) Academic year 2017-2018 RESEARCH - COPYRIGHT ACTIVITY Doctoral Thesis on 'Verbesserung der aussagekraft der enzymdiagnostik be lebererkrankungen mit hilfe der 5 - nucleotidase und glutamatdehydrogenase' Participation in European research on the position of modern Greek women and, consequently, European contraception. Participation in research concerning The role of inflammatory cytokines and fibronectin in vaginal and cervical secretions Participation in a multicenter research program by the Greek Obstetrics and Gynecology Society to conduct Pan-Hellenic Caesarean section research to record data regarding this intervention. Participation in EurOSA ,HRT role in pre-and postmenopausal women Participation in a research program at the University of Würzburg Medical School, Aschaffenburg University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, on 'Techniques for cleaning lymph nodes in gynecological cancer surgery'. Participation in a research program at the Aschaffenburg University Hospital Medical School, University of Würzburg Medical School, entitled 'Methods and complications in the application of remedial techniques to surgical patients'. International and Greek Conferences as well as Publications in valid International and Greek Scientific Journals. 5 CHAPTERS IN GREEK BOOKS 14 CHAPTERS IN INTERNATIONAL BOOKS Writing a monograph for the needs of the chosen course entitled 'Child Adolescent Gynecology' Writing a monograph 'Pregnancy in rheumatic diseases'. 220 presentations (oral or poster) in international congresses and 200 presentations (oral or poster) in national congresses INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS Research Gate Library 222 Publications, Scopus Research Library 146 Publications Pubmed Research Library 129 Publications Conference papers: 12 Papers Reviewer in international journals 4000 Papers

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