About the book
The central dogma is a framework to explain the flow of sequence information between information-carrying biomolecules including DNAs, RNAs, and proteins. Modifications are the important molecular events that occur in these biomolecules, which significantly regulate the structures and functions of biomolecules and even the entire biological system. Modifications of biomolecules have been recognized to extensively associate with different pathological and physiological conditions, including cancer, inflammatory disease, neurodegenerative disease, metabolic disease, and diabetics. Modifications of biomolecules are very complex and are the important factors to cause the diversity of biomolecules. There are several modifications such as cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation occurring in DNAs and at least 20 post-translational modifications occurring in DNA-binding protein histone to regulate the structures and functions of DNAs, at least 150 post-transcriptional modifications such as 3- and 5-methylcytosines (m3C, m5C), N1- and N6-methyladenosines (m1A, m6A, m6Am), pseudouridine (Ψ), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hm5C), and 2′-O-methylation (Nm) occurring in RNAs to regulate the structures and functions of RNAs, and 400-600 post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitylation, methylation, sumoylation, acetylation, sulfation, deamidation, nitration, nitrosylation, hydroxylation, succinylation, prenylation, myristoylation, and palmitoylation occurring in proteins to regulate the structures and functions of proteins. Different modifications of biomolecules have different characteristics and methodologies of research. The development of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics is tremendously driving the large-scale studies of biomolecular modifications, including qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomolecular modifications – modified sites and levels at the biomolecules, and further clarify the cellular signaling molecular mechanisms and functions that modifications are involved in. Moreover, there are antagonistic and synergistic effects between biomolecular modifications in a biomolecule to significantly complicate their biological effects. To date, the studies on biomolecular modifications are far insufficient in the fields of life sciences and medical sciences. It is time to strengthen the studies of biomolecular modifications in breadth and depth.
This book will focus on the global identification and quantification of different biomolecular modifications with different omics, and functional roles, and molecular mechanisms of different biomolecular modifications, in different pathological and physiological conditions.