Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Brain Neuromodulation - Basic Research and Clinical Applications

T. Dorina Papageorgiou

Baylor College of Medicine

Dr. Papageorgiou has pioneered an individualized real-time fMRI neurofeedback approach for visual and motor neuro-rehabilitation. She is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Neuroscience, Psychical Medicine & Rehab at Baylor College of Medicine and of Neuroengineering, and Applied Physics at Rice University.


Christos Constantinidis

Vanderbilt University

An accomplished researcher in neurophysiology, with work in the neural basis of cognitive functions, and the use of deep brain stimulation for enhancing cognitive functions.

Emmanouil Froudarakis

Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology - Foundation for Research and Technology

A systems neuroscientist, with extensive experience in vision, two-photon microscopy & analysis of neural population data, using a multidisciplinary approach to understand how cortical circuits perform complex computations that guide visual behavior in mice.


Brain Neuromodulation Brain Electrophysiology Brain-Computer Interfaces Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Deep Brain Stimulation Cranial Ultrasound Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Intracranial Cortical Stimulation Neuroengineering Neuromodulation of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders Neural Networks and Deep Learning

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About the book

The field of brain neuromodulation is steadfastly burgeoning with advances in the mechanisms it induces, as well as its therapeutic application to neurological and psychiatric disorders. Brain neuromodulation refers to neuroengineering technologies through electrical, chemical, optogenetic, and electromagnetic approaches that interface to alter the nervous system’s activity with the goal to better activate, inhibit or, regulate it. A variety of invasive – implantable and non-invasive modalities have been developed yet, no single systems mechanism can characterize these neuromodulatory approaches and neuroengineering technologies, as each one operates on a different spatial and temporal scale.

The goal of this book is to provide an overview of existing and introduce new neuromodulatory approaches applied in animals and humans. This book will explore advances in the physiological mechanisms uncovered through neuromodulatory approaches via electrophysiology, cranial ultrasound, and deep brain stimulation in primates and mice; development and fabrication of neuroengineering devices to enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of existing technologies; and clinical applications of invasive and non-invasive modalities, such as deep brain stimulation, intracranial cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and real-time fMRI neurofeedback stimulation. Within the next decade, the space of brain neuromodulation is poised to undergo a burst of therapeutic interventions aiming to neuro-rehabilitate neurological and psychiatric disorders but also to increase human performance.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: February 12th 2021

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline Extended: Open for Submissions

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Deadline for full chapters: March 31st 2022

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Review results due: June 19th 2022

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Expected publication date: August 18th 2022

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About the editor

T. Dorina Papageorgiou

Baylor College of Medicine

Dr. Papageorgiou obtained a BA in Psychology and Sociology (University of Georgia), a M.H.Sc. in Psychiatric Epidemiology (Johns Hopkins University), and a Ph.D. in the Biomedical Sciences with a focus on the neuroimaging of morphine (University of Texas - M.D. Anderson Cancer Center; MDACC). She continued with three postdoctoral fellowships: (i) neuroimaging of pain (MDACC); (ii) real-time fMRI neurofeedback of speech impairment (Baylor College of Medicine); and (ii) real-time fMRI neurofeedback of cortical blindness (BCM). As an Assistant Professor of Neurology her research focuses on cortical plasticity, and neuro-rehabilitation of cortical blindness, speech impairment and, chronic pain syndromes, as a result of neurological disorders, traumatic brain injury or, cancer-related symptoms using targeted/individualized real-time fMRI neurofeedback methods. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The T. Dorina Papageorgiou - Investigational Targeted Brain Neurotherapeutics Lab has developed a novel, targeted and individualized MRI-compatible brain computer interface (BCI) based on associative learning principles that can induce neuromodulation in patients with neurological sequelae following stroke (commonly a result of a posterior cerebral artery infarct, or a middle cerebral artery infarct), traumatic brain injury or tumor resection. We call our MRI-BCI, individualized real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (iRTfMRI nFb), which is based on promoting the reorganization of networks by bypassing lesioned pathways and capitalizing on redundant, intact but functionally associated pathways to the injured ones. This is achieved by modulating the magnitude and spatial extent of Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal with the goal to recover the brain function, as a result of a neurological insult. We apply this investigational treatment to patients with impairments of the following cortical systems: Retrochiasmal lesions downstream of the optic radiation, which result in cortical blindness. Supra- or infra-nuclear injury to the hypoglossal or glossopharyngeal nucleus, which result in upper motor neuron disease (lesions upstream of the medulla oblongata that can impact somatomotor, and somatosensory areas) or lower motor neuron disease (lesions downstream of the medulla oblongata). Pain matrix network areas, which result in impaired somatosensory and somatomotor pain matrix network activity as a result of CNS- or PNS-associated pain. Reorganization is possible by neuromodulating the spatial extent and intensity of the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal to a patient's intact cortical area, which takes over in performing the function, as it has been impaired in the primary cortical areas following neurological injury. This investigational treatment engages associative learning mechanisms that modulate the activity of intact cortical areas with the goal to improve performance in patient populations with neurological sequelae as a result of stroke, traumatic brain injury or tumor resection. Patients undergo rneurofeedback in real time to upregulate or downregulate the activity of intact cortical and/or subcortical areas in conjunction with the continuous presentation of visual stimuli inside the MRI environment with the goal to restore or reorganize lesioned pathways associated with vision, speech, or pain. The modulation in the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal intensity is achieved by feeding back to the patient the magnitude of mean BOLD signal intensity of his/her intact cortical area during the presentation of a stimulus in real-time. The hypothesis is that such training engages Hebbian mechanisms that modulate the activity of intact cortical areas with the goal to improve performance.

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