About the book
Ion exchange materials are available in different forms and structures varying in their classifications depending on origin, physical form (morphology), immobilized functional group, and their functions. The mechanism of ion exchange is dictated by various parameters related to the ion exchange materials such as the nature and type of fixed functional groups, the physical forms, and the origin of the ion exchange material. Ion exchange is a technology that has been ever receiving growing attention in various industries for several decades. This technology is commonly used to purify solutions by removing the dissolved ions by electrostatic sorption into ion exchange materials of various physical forms. The removed ions are replaced with equivalent amounts of other ions of the same charge in the solutions. The use of ion exchange reaction allows either all ions to be removed from a solution or particular ions to be selectively separated. Therefore, both selective removal of ionic contamination and complete deionization can be distinguished. The selection between both depends mainly on the composition of the solution and the extent of decontamination required. The applications of ion exchange are numerous and cover wide ranges of industries and households. These applications mainly cover purification purposes; however, ion exchange is also widely implemented in the separation and extraction of valuable substances such as uranium and plutonium from the nuclear industry waste. Deionization (demineralization) of water and water softening are known to be the most common applications. However, the spectrum of other applications varies from large-scale extraction of metals in hydrometallurgical and metal finishing processes to recovery of precious metals. The applications of ion exchange are also extended to food and beverages, petrochemical and chemical, pharmaceutical, sugar and sweeteners, industrial waste water, ground and potable water, semiconductor, production power soil remedy, and pulp and paper industry.