About the book
Post-translational modification (PTM) is an elaborate process that occurs on a protein after its translation by ribosomes is complete. PTMs of proteins are crucial because they may alter the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, localization, molecular interaction and consequently the functions of the targets. PTMs are mostly catalyzed by special enzymes that recognize specific target sequences in specific proteins. To date, more than 400 different types of PTMs have been identified, including phosphorylation, methylation SUMOylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, hydroxylation, ADP-ribosylation, palmitoylation, citrullination and other novel protein-bound amino acid modifications. PTMs can be mainly grouped into reversible and irreversible categories according to their stability or transience. Most reversible PTMs are usually associated with cellular signal transduction and gene regulation, which are utilized as a switch to control the state of cells being the resting or proliferating in normal cells. Some irreversible PTMs are also involved in cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cell differentiation, which may lead to abnormal pathogenesis or tumorigenesis. There has been an increasing appreciation for the roles of PTMs in a wide variety of cellular functions and diseases.
This book intends to provide the reader with an overview of the current state-of-the-art in this research field, which focuses on the recent advances, new findings and perspectives in cellular functions and their clinical applications in human diseases.