About the book
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the sixteenth biggest cause of reduction of life expectancy worldwide. Appropriate screening, diagnosis, and management by primary care clinicians are necessary to prevent adverse CKD-associated outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, end-stage kidney disease, and death. From the clinical point of view, it is a longstanding disease of the kidneys leading to renal failure. The kidney’s main function, beyond its hormonal and enzymatic production, is to filter the metabolites and surplus fluids from the blood. When the kidney reduces its filtration capacity, these vestigial products build-up, and CKD is established. Renal failure is a progressive condition with symptoms that develop slowly and are not specific to the disease itself. In some cases, the diagnosis is based on laboratory tests only, without major clinical manifestations. In terms of conservative treatment, some medication helps manage the symptoms, possibly increasing the life expectancy. In later phases, artificial filtration methods may be required, such as ambulatorial dialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The gold standard solution is renal transplantation. However, this is not an easily done procedure in some situations, whether due to immunological incompatibilities or strategic public health plans incapable of meeting the demands. Classically, CKD was associated with aging or inherited disorders. However, it is currently observed in different age ranges and linked to modern lifestyles issues (dietary preferences, sedentarism, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other potentially unbalanced conditions of human health), even in patients with no other risk factors.