About the book
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major concern for the public health system worldwide. These infections of the human reproductive system spread primarily through person-to-person contact and can be produced by a wide variety of pathogens. The most common bacteria involved in STIs are Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and mycoplasma. As most STIs are asymptomatic at debut, their clinical documentation is difficult. Lack of proper treatment can lead to serious complications such as chronic pelvic pain, infertility, pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection and inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries in women whose result may be permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive organs. It is documented that screening and treatment of bacterial vaginosis have increased the pregnancy rate considerably. Also, these infections may be transmitted from mother to newborn babies. It is known that these bacteria are very difficult to isolate on culture media by classical methods, therefore an accurate diagnosis of bacterial STI is difficult to be made in genitourinary infections. In recent years, however, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) allowed their precise identification from different biological samples. Complications of STIs can cause similar symptoms in several pathogens, but antibiotic treatment may vary. On the other hand, the treatment is quite difficult due to the emergence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial agents used.
This book aims to provide information on bacteria involved in STIs and their consequences due to lack of appropriate treatment, highlighting the importance of population-wide bacterial STI screening and implementation of prevention methods to reduce the spreading of these diseases in the population, especially in areas of high STI prevalence, providing useful information for practitioners or researchers interested in this topic.