Part of the book: Organic Pollutants Ten Years After the Stockholm Convention
The objective of this chapter is to present the results of a monitoring study carried out with physiological responses (biomarkers) in Rhinella marina (giant toad) for two different years, inhabiting the low basin of Coatzacoalcos river, one of the most contaminated regions in Mexico. A decrease in delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) (considered inhibition) and in the condition factor (1.2–1.5 times) found in toads of the industrial zone compared with reference organisms, each year. As for the hematological parameters, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), in the amphibians of industrial zone of the first sampling year show a decrease, while for the second sampling year, show an increment of 1.5 times than organisms of reference site. These effects could be associated with exposure to pollutants such as heavy metals (mainly Pb), which have been registered in different studies. This study demonstrates the usefulness of giant toads as biomonitors of contaminated sites.
Part of the book: Reptiles and Amphibians
The mining industry has generated different sources of pollution and effects in human and ecosystem health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect in gradient of the biological activity of the soil derived from the contamination by lead and arsenic. A linear transect was conducted from the tailings in Villa de la Paz to a reference site 10 km away against wind direction and runoff. The parameters that were analyzed in the soil samples included As, Pb, pH, organic matter, electrical conductivity, soil respiration, and soil enzymes. As concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 463.2 mg/kg, while those of lead ranged from 171.7 to 2319.0 mg/kg. The changes in the physicochemical parameters and in the biological activity of the soil were stronger within the first 100 m of distance from the tailings. The pattern of inhibition of biological activity was: urease>β-glucosidase>arylsulfatase> dehydrogenase>phosphatase>respiration. Strong negative relationships were observed among biological activities and arsenic (from 86.5 to 96%). Metals and covariables jointly explain the 89.2% of variability of the effect in the biological activities. This study provides a field baseline that could be part of a long-term monitoring and remediation program.
Part of the book: Soil Contamination and Alternatives for Sustainable Development