Although infection is one of the preventable causes of human infertility, it is always missed or neglected. History of urethral discharge has been reported in about 45% of the black men attending the outpatient clinic with infertility complaint.
Part of the book: Genital Infections and Infertility
Helminths (from the Greek Helmins, meaning worm) include three groups of parasitic worm, large multicellular organisms with complex tissues and organs. Helminths do not replicate within the human host except Strongyloides stercoralis. Prevalence is commonly combined with worm burden (intensity of infection), which is commonly measured by the number of eggs per gram (EPGs) of faeces for intestinal helminths and schistosomes. Based on EPGs and their association with morbidity, individuals are classified into categories of light, moderate and heavy infection by the WHO. In the case of soil‐transmitted helminths, the WHO recommends use of both prevalence and intensity of infection to classify communities into transmission categories—category I (high), category II (medium), and category III (low). The neglected status of the helminthiasis should be addressed on community levels and globally all over the world.
Part of the book: Human Helminthiasis
There has been considerable interest in urethral‐sparing cystectomy and preservation of the gynecological tract to maintain continence mechanism, sexual function, and reproductive function in young patients who undergo radical cystectomy for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer and this new technique gained acceptance in many centers. The issue of oncological safety of a urethra and anterior vaginal wall‐sparing cystectomy in selected patients has been addressed by several authors. The chapter will discuss the following items: (I) Technique of genital‐sparing radical cystectomy in female patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. (II) Definition and rationale of genital‐sparing radical cystectomy in female patients. (III) Rational and value of urethral preservation in genital‐sparing cystectomy in female patients with urothelial carcinoma. (IV) Previous reports about genital‐sparing cystectomy in patients with urothelial carcinoma. (V) Value of preservation of the internal genital organs in female patients undergoing radical cystectomy.
Part of the book: Bladder Cancer
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) was introduced in 1980 as the preferred tool by the urologist for the treatment of renal stones and or upper ureteral stones. ESWL is minimally invasive procedures, exposes patients to fewer anesthesias, and has equivalent stone‐free rates comparable to open surgery and endourology interventions for the treatment of renal stones. Urolithiasis is not the only application for extracorporeal shock waves but there are also other applications for it. Extracorporeal shock wave is used for the treatment of gall bladder stones, common bile duct stone clearance, pancreatic calculi, salivary stones, erectile dysfunction, and refractory angina pectoris chronic wound healing. This chapter gives full review about ESWL as minimally invasive procedures in the following items: (i) ESWL l in treatment of gall stones; (ii) ESWL for common bile duct (CBD) stones; (iii) ESWL for pancreatic stones associated with pancreatic pseudo cysts and chronic pancreatitis; (iv) ESWL in the treatment of salivary stones; (v) ESWL in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED); (vi) Cardiac shock wave therapy (ESWL) in treatment of refractory angina (RA); (vii) ESWL and chronic wound healing; (viii) Recent trends in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL); (ix) Post ESWL complementary therapy; and (x) The future of ESWL in the year 2038.
Part of the book: Updates and Advances in Nephrolithiasis