Part of the book: New Advances and Contributions to Forestry Research
This chapter discusses the impact of effluent discharge on the distribution of potentially toxic elements (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in water, sediments and soils near a Kraft mill in Western Kenya. Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) concentrations were determined at three sites: Water Intake Point, Effluent Discharge Point and Downstream Point. The mill liquid effluent parameters and gaseous emissions were also characterized. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the spatial differences in PTEs concentrations. Principal component analysis determined the correlations between the proximity to the Kraft mill and the PTEs in soils, water and sediments. In riverine soils, Cd was 0.78 ± 0.01 mg/kg, while Pb was 94.38 ± 9.65 mg/kg. In sediments, the concentration was 16.81 ± 2.46 mg/kg for Zn, 6.16 ± 0.72 mg/kg for Cd and 75.28 ± 5.97 mg/kg for Pb. In water, Zn was 0.26 ± 0.038 mg/L, Cu was 0.75 ± 0.11 mg/L, Cd was 0.05 ± 0.004 mg/L and Pb was 1.26 ± 9.65 mg/L. The spatial distributions of PTEs in soils near the factory and across the river may have resulted from the factory’s effluent discharge and gaseous emissions. These findings should help formulate more stringent industrial effluent management programs in Western Kenya.
Part of the book: Environmental Impact and Remediation of Heavy Metals