Part of the book: Genetic Diversity in Plants
The changing demands of tourism provide greater benefits to tourists and generate competitive advantages that develop diversity in tourism. Elements of ecotourism fit within this context, and such tourism includes, but is not limited to, activities such as visiting natural and cultural resources without destroying nature, which are carried out with an aim toward sustainability. Ilgaz Mountain has a wealth of natural, cultural, historical, and recreational features, and its location near the Black Sea gives the area significant tourism potential. In order to evaluate the impact, potential, and possibilities of ecotourism in this protected area, we used geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the nature of protection required based on implementation availability. In this study, we used ecology-based identification of the natural and cultural values to characterize the features. The study consists of four parts: (1) the concept of ecotourism, (2) discussion of sustainable growth of tourism, (3) sustainability of ecotourism using GIS and how this is related to sustainable ecotourism in protected areas, such as in Turkey, (4) results and evaluation. By assessing these results, we aim to determine potential areas for ecotourism in terms of sustainable development, and we expect the results to provide useful ideas for further research.
Part of the book: Tourism
Especially the use of drought‐resistant plant species reduces maintenance and irrigation costs, and plants increase the retention and success to continue its life in arid landscape. In this study, some plant species used have been studied to determine their tolerance to drought stress in gardens and parks in Kastamonu. For this purpose, germination trials have been in conducted -2, -4, -6, and -8 Bar water stress. Landscaping applications commonly used some species such as Cupressus sempervirens L., Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Pyracantha coccinea Roem, Thuja orientalis, Pinus sylvestris L., Sophora japonica, Cedrus libani A. Rich., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pinus brutia Ten., and Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe. Their seeds were evaluated different levels of water stress in the germination percentage. PEG 6000 solution was used in the formulation of water stress. The seeds were exposed to constant temperature of 25°C for a period of 35 days at germination cabinet. As a result, this experiment calculated germination in different water stress levels what percentage has fallen, so the least affected by increased water stress was studied to determine the species. Also results showed increased water stress and reduce the percentage of germination in all species. The highest level of water stress -8 Bar, which was also obtained stress level proportional germination values Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe (64.8%) and Pinus brutia Ten. (46.5%).
Part of the book: Water Stress in Plants
Lilies are economically important plants because of their large and attractive flowers. Thus, many wild species of lilies have been cultivated to produce Lilium bulbs or flowers. This work was conducted to analyse the effect of hormone applications on Lilium artvinense (Syn: Lilium ponticum K. Koch., Lilium ponticum var. artvinense (Miscz.) P. H. Davis and D. M. Hend., Lilium carniolicum var. artvinense (Miscz.) P. H. Davis and D. M. Hend and Lilium pyrenaicum var. artvinense (Miscz.) V.A. Matthews) seeds on germination percentage and seedlings morphological traits. In the research, 1000, 3000 and 5000 ppm doses of IAA, IBA, NAA and GA3 hormones were applied to L. artvinense seeds and approximately 180 days later, the number of roots, root length, offset stem height and diameter were assessed. As a result, while the control group except 5000 ppm NNA application achieved an increase in the percentage of germination (40%) of all the applications. Germination frequency up to 100% was obtained using 5000 ppm GA3. Effects of hormone applications on other key morphological characters (rooting percentage, root height, number of scions, scion height and width) are described in terms of growth rate between 1.27 and 2.44.
Part of the book: New Challenges in Seed Biology