Nutritional utilization of antioxidants, such as vitamins C, E, ß-Carotene and micronutrients, such as folate and zinc, have been shown to be critically essential for normal semen quality and reproductive function. However, it is still, a large knowledge gap exists concerning the role of antioxidants on semen parameters and the role in treatment of male subfertility. Therefore, the current review article designed to find out the positive effect of antioxidants on semen quality, alterations in physiological functions of spermatozoa and infertility treatment It is advisable that patients with oxidative DNA disruption should be asked to take a simple course of antioxidants prior to undertaking assisted reproduction treatment (ART). In conclusion, antioxidant may be employed as a potent antioxidant and may improve infertility treatment outcomes with ART.
Part of the book: Antioxidants
One of the major concerns of the world health community is the infertility. The definition of infertility according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) is the inability of a healthy couple to achieve a conception after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Fertility complications affect seven percent of the male. The causes of infertility were divided to non-obstructive and obstructive. But, in almost 75% of male infertility cases are idiopathic with predominance of the genetic abnormalities. Numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities are considered as genetic abnormalities that occur during the meiotic division in spermatogenesis. These abnormalities get transferred to the Offspring, which affects the normal and even the artificial conception. In the human reproduction, sperm cells are considered as a delivery vehicle for the male genetic material packed in chromosomes, which are composed of nearly 2-meter Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule and their packaging proteins. This chapter points to grant a summarized description of individual components of the male reproductive system: the seminiferous tubule and spermatogenesis. Here, we describe step by step the structure of the testis seminiferous tubule and what occurs inside these tubules like cell communication and germ cell development from spermatogonia until spermatozoon. This book chapter is very useful for the biologists and physicians working in Assisted reproduction field to understand the physiology and pathology of spermatogenesis.
Part of the book: Male Reproductive Anatomy
Smoking contributes to the death of around one in 10 adults worldwide. Specifically, cigarettes are known to contain around 4000 toxins and chemicals that are hazardous in nature. The negative effects of smoking on human health and interest in smoking-related diseases have a long history. Among these concerns are the harmful effects of smoking on reproductive health. Thirteen percent of female infertility is due to smoking. Female smoking can lead to gamete mutagenesis, early loss of reproductive function, and thus advance the time to menopause. It has been also associated with ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. Even when it comes to assisted reproductive technologies cycles, smokers require more cycles, almost double the number of cycles needed to conceive as non-smokers. Male smoking is shown to be correlated with poorer semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation. Not only active smokers but also passive smokers, when excessively exposed to smoking, can have reproductive problems comparable to those seen in smokers. In this book chapter, we will approach the effect of tobacco, especially tobacco smoking, on male and female reproductive health. This aims to take a preventive approach to infertility by discouraging smoking and helping to eliminate exposure to tobacco smoke in both women and men.
Part of the book: Studies in Family Planning
A human being is made up of two living cells: the egg and the sperm, which pass the torch of life to the next generation. After zygote, the fertilized egg undergoes a series of mitotic divisions. First division into two cells is called blastomeres, and then four cells to 64 cells are called the morula stage. Five days after fertilization, the embryo reaches the blastocyst stage. This blastocyst is attaching itself to the uterine wall for implantation. Implantation is complete when the blastocyst is fully embedded in the endometrium a few days later. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, oocytes, embryos, and blastocysts has become an integral part of improving the success of infertility treatment and fertility preservation. Various cryopreservation strategies have been proposed to enhance cell survival and preserve cellular function. It also increases the efficiency of assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures, enables biodiversity conservation, and provides protection to a valuable biological material. However, successful cryopreservation requires the use of cryoprotectants. The chemical and physical effects of these reagents/processes cause extensive cryogenic damage to the plasma membrane, leading to changes in its normal function. In this chapter, we will discuss different interventions to preserve fertility, including cryopreservation methods and cryoprotectants used.
Part of the book: Cryopreservation