Part of the book: Crystallization
Part of the book: Advanced Topics in Crystallization
The crystallization of small-molecule drugs plays an important role in the pharmaceutical industry. Since many downstream industrial processes are heavily influenced by the crystalline properties of a drug, that is, crystal shape, size distribution, and polymorphic form, control over the crystallization process can facilitate manufacturing and testing. However, before the crystallization process can be controlled, an understanding of its underlying mechanisms is required. In this chapter, we will look at the thermodynamic driving force behind crystallization and how crystal nucleation and growth rates can be used to control the properties of the resulting crystals. Throughout the chapter, we give examples of how these control approaches can be applied in pharmaceutical research and industry to obtain crystals with desired properties. We then finish this chapter with a look at crystallization from the amorphous state, which differs from crystallization from solution and is a relevant topic in pharmaceutical sciences, since the preparation of an amorphous solid is a popular approach to enhancing the solubility of a drug.
Part of the book: Crystal Growth and Chirality