Part of the book: Forest Ecosystems
Part of the book: Biodiversity in Ecosystems
Common bean is the most important legume for human consumption in the world, being a crop extremely diverse in cultivation methods, uses, range of environments in which it is adapted, morphological variety, among others. Besides its high demand and production, this crop is threatened by a series of biotic and abiotic adversities during its life cycle, which leads to losses in yield of up to 100%. In this chapter, we explored the main constraints that affect common bean and the ways this plant reaches tolerance or resistance to them, highlighting studies at the molecular level that enabled to understand the mechanisms by which common bean perceives, responds, and adapts to a stress condition. Special focus has been given to the most recent findings in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance and anthracnose resistance. Thereby, we reviewed some genetic and functional genomic studies concerning the genes and pathways involved in each case. Furthermore, we outline important genetic resources of Phaseolus vulgaris, as well as the technologies and methods used toward these findings.
Part of the book: Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants
In this chapter, we outline the significance of landraces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for unraveling novel morphological, biochemical and genetic variation that could be integrated to breeding programs, related to seed coat color and glossiness and disease resistance. Moreover, we emphasize how important the conservation of such genetic resources is in small-farming areas, the prevailing system for bean cultivation. A particular Brazilian landrace referred as Serro Azul by local farmers is highlighted to show new evidences of the genetic control of seed glossiness in common bean and how it implicates in the seed protection against diseases and insects. Moreover, new findings presented here give insights into a remarkable anthracnose resistance of one of the variants of Serro Azul, which also presents seed coat glossiness. The potential benefits for human health after consuming beans with glossy seed coat are also discussed. This is one among the various landraces that need better understanding for strengthening the knowledge of the genetic diversity of common bean. Such knowledge is important for conducting conservation actions and performing new crosses for providing genetic materials with desirable combinations for farmers, breeders and consumers.
Part of the book: Rediscovery of Landraces as a Resource for the Future