The study of germline stem cells and of germline cells has deep implications for the understanding of fertility, development and cancer. Nowadays, we are experiencing the very fascinating challenge of application of –OMICS technologies to this issue, which is opening new and unexpected horizons in virtually all the branches of biology. Here, we carried out a review of signalling systems involved in maturation of male germ cells and in the process that leads them to become fully fertile. In particular, we discuss the control mechanisms involved in capacitation and acrosome reaction that act at membrane level. Indeed, spermatozoa membranes play key roles in determining the achievement of fertility: they are the interface with the surrounding environment, they locate the signal transduction systems and they are active in recognizing and binding the oocyte. In addition, we discuss the effect of several compounds that could exert a negative effect on reproductive activity, by interfering with the endocrine axis, the so-called endocrine disruptors.
Part of the book: Germ Cell
Here we carried out a scientometric analysis of scientific literature published referred to the use of graphene and graphene-based materials. We found that in the last 15 years, more than 1200 issues have been produced, with an H-index of 67 cited 2647 times. The countries that have a larger production, in terms of number of issues published, are China, the United States, South Korea, India, and Iran, and the most relevant subject categories in which they are indexed are materials science, chemistry, science and technology, physics, and engineering, while the biological and medical specialties seem to be actually not deeply involved.
Part of the book: Scientometrics