Part of the book: Neurodegenerative Diseases
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large family of the receptors that specifically interact with a number of signal molecules, play a key role in the regulation of fundamental cell processes, and the pharmacological action of over 40% of drugs is carried out through GPCRs. In the last years, a significant progress was made in the creation of selective regulators of GPCRs interacting with their allosteric sites, such as the synthetic peptides corresponding to intracellular regions of receptors (GPCR-peptides) and the low-molecular weight agonists and antagonists of GPCRs. This review describes the recent results obtained by us and other authors in the development of GPCR-peptides and low-molecular weight agonists and the prospects of their use in clinics.
Part of the book: Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry
There is evidence that the mass and metabolic status of the adipose tissue that produces adipokines significantly affect the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the synthesis of testosterone. This is due to the fact that adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin have an important role in the regulation of the male HPG axis and steroidogenesis in the testes. The regulation of the HPG axis by adipokines can be carried out both through the changes the plasma levels of adipokines (a systemic regulation) and through the changes in the expression and activity of adipokines in the pituitary and testes, the components of the HPG axis (an autonomous regulation). This review presents the comprehensive analysis of the involvement of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin in the regulation of the male HPG axis and the testosterone production, as well as of the possible mechanisms of this regulation. The role of adipokines in the dysregulation of the male reproductive system and the impaired steroidogenic activity in the testes in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are also discussed.
Part of the book: Advances in Testosterone Action