Part of the book: Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Part of the book: Respiratory Disease and Infection
Pneumonia is a common illness that continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae are generally considered as the main pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia and Legionella species, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumonia in atypical pneumonias. In contrast the proportion of pneumonias due to viruses has been both difficult to detect and quantify with any precision. However, with the advent of powerful molecular techniques and rapidly developing technologies a greater number of viruses are being implicated as pathogens and co-pathogens in pneumonia. In the case of adults, the most commonly detected viruses are influenza virus, RSV and parainfluenza. Other viruses that have recently received considerable attention, are H5N1 influenza virus and coronaviruses. Infectious causes of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients include measles, HSV, CMV, HHV-6 and Influenza viruses. Pneumonias caused by other viruses are more rarely reported and include outbreaks of rhinovirus, adenovirus (particularly serotype 14 in military institutions), coronavirus, and metapneumovirus. A range of promising therapeutic targets have been identified and numerous innovative therapeutic treatments demonstrated to improve lung injury due to viral infections.
Part of the book: Contemporary Topics of Pneumonia