Part of the book: Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases
Part of the book: Insights from Veterinary Medicine
Brucella spp. is the aetiological agent of brucellosis, a serious contagious disease that results in reproductive failure and that has profound public health significance because of its zoonotic characteristics. This disease also is responsible for a high economic impact associated with the application of prevention, surveillance and test-and-slaughter programmes in animals by national authorities. Brucella spp. infects a large variety of animals and their prevalence is variable worldwide, mainly associated with the presence or absence of control programmes and also with the vaccination of animals against brucellosis. To achieve the control and eradication of brucellosis, the identification of the risk factors of brucellosis that maintain the infection in animals and/or the environment is fundamental. Although several risks have been identified, the most important have been associated with the biology of the bacteria, animal management (age, sex, species or breed), herd management (herd/flock size, number of species, contact with wild animals or type of animal production), farm management (facilities, cleaning and disinfection or veterinary support) and farmers’ knowledge about the disease. Thus, to benefit from proper risk identification of brucellosis, it is essential to put a cost-effective and efficient brucellosis control programme into place.
Part of the book: Updates on Brucellosis
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel Orthobunyavirus causing mild clinical signs in cows and malformations in aborted and neonatal ruminants in Europe. SBV belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and is transmitted by biting midges. This new virus was identified for the first time in the blood samples of cows in the city of Schmallenberg in NorthRhine-Westphalia in November 2011. Since then the virus spread to several European countries. Here we describe the origin and emergence, as well as the transmission and the differential diagnosis of this virus, now known to be a serious threat to Veterinary Public Health.
Part of the book: Epidemiology of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases
Needlestick injuries (NSIs) are a serious concern for veterinary practitioners as well as other healthcare personnel. During practice, veterinarians are exposed to various risky situations in which NSI and sharps injuries seem to be a common occupational hazard. Studies on prevalence and occurrence of NSI in veterinary medicine are scarce and probably underreported. One important consequence is the physical trauma. However, other factors related to their economic or psychiatric impact should also be considered. The studies available about NSI in veterinarians reported different prevalence, ranging from 1 % to 86.7 %, although their comparison is difficult since prevalence is calculated from different data sources. Various risk factors of NSI (such as years as veterinarians, number of work hours, poor quality of restraint of animals, poor needle handling practices, among others) have been described. However, information regarding risk factors in veterinary medicine is scarce. In order to understand the epidemiology of NSI in veterinarians, a review of the literature published in the last four decades (1980–2016) is presented. Thus, the current chapter will address several characteristics of NSI in veterinary medicine as occurrence, prevalence and incidence risk factors, consequences and preventive measures.
Part of the book: Occupational Health