Subepithelial tumors (SETs) in the upper digestive tract are rare and only 10% of are located in the duodenum. Assessment of lesions protruding from the duodenal wall is difficult. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) are not able to completely distinguish between different tumors and guide their subsequent management. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has a significant diagnostic yield in this context. EUS is able to accurately diagnose duodenal lesions, perform a biopsy if considered useful, guide the approach for resection and provide appropriate follow-up. SETs reported during upper GI endoscopy are more commonly cysts, polyps, lipomas, Brunner’s gland adenoma, ectopic pancreas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). In addition, although more rarely, adenocarcinomas and lymphomas can be identified. EUS should be performed for any duodenal lesion larger than 1 cm that lacks the endoscopic characteristics of a cyst or a lipoma.
Part of the book: Endoscopy in Small Bowel Diseases