Part of the book: Oilseeds
Part of the book: The Mediterranean Genetic Code
Grapes (Vitis spp.) are consumed as fresh table fruits, raisins, and processed into wine, juice, jelly and other value-added products. Grapes contain bioactive secondary metabolites (polyphenols), such as proanthocyanins (oliogemeric flavonoids), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin), and anthocyanins. They have non-flavonoids such as hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, and vanillic acids), and hydroxybenzoic acids: trihydroxy stilbenes (resveratrol and polydatin). These phytochemicals are of economic importance to pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Nutraceuticals from grape seeds have potential cardioprotective, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial properties. Grape seed nutraceuticals have been re-invented in the past few years as a new paradigm in human medicine. In particular, nutraceuticals from grape seeds have been used in stopping wound bleeding, anti-inflammatory agents, pain relief, and anti-diarrhea. In addition, they can be used for the treatment of various human health conditions such as cancer, cholera, smallpox, and nausea as well as eye infections, skin, kidney, liver diseases, etc. Nowadays, consumers are demanding for healthy supplements and personal care products with natural ingredients. Therefore, the present review highlights recent developments and future opportunities of grape seed nutraceuticals for the prevention of human diseases.
Part of the book: Phenolic Compounds
The agricultural policy environment in sub-Saharan Africa in the last 15 years has been erratic, especially with regard to adoption of biotechnology. While many biotech products such as tissue culture (TC) banana, hybrid maize, and others are now frequent at farm level, the adoption of some of the technologies remains relatively low, partly due to political and regulatory bottlenecks that have hampered farm deployment and entry into market systems of genetically engineered crops and products. This chapter reviews the political landscape of biotech crops across sub-Saharan Africa; analyses the state of enabling policy environment in key countries; discusses the impact of push-pull factors on food security, research, and training; and identifies the opportunities for investment in biotechnology and agribusiness in sub-Saharan Africa.
Part of the book: Elements of Bioeconomy