Part of the book: Lithium Ion Batteries
This chapter analyses the main advances made in the field of sodium–vanadium fluorophosphates as cathodes for Na-ion batteries and tries to clarify some discrepancies and common errors published about these compounds. The sodium–vanadium fluorophosphate family can be divided in two main members: Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (V+3 extreme phase) and Na3V2O2(PO4)2F (V4+ extreme phase). Na3V2O2x(PO4)2F3-2x, where 0 < x < 1 would correspond to intermediate V3+/4+ mixed valence phases. Among them, the V3+ extreme has demonstrated to be difficult to isolate, whereas the V4+ and mixed valence phases can be more easily prepared by different synthesis methods and from different vanadium sources. In terms of electrochemical performance, mixed valent compound provides good performance, with high specific capacity at moderate/high cycling rates, and long cycle life. The future perspectives for this family of compounds are discussed in terms of raw materials availability, price, and performance relative to other cathode systems for Na-ion batteries.
Part of the book: Alkali-ion Batteries