Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with blood maintaining myocardial hemostasis and function. Coronary artery anomalies may persist after birth affecting cardiovascular system through haemodynamic impairment caused from shunting, ischaemia, especially in young children or adolescents and young adults. In patients undergoing coronary angiography the incidence of anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from right sinus is 0.15% and the right coronary artery from the left sinus is 0.92%. A recent classification of the coronary anomalies is based on anatomical considerations, recognizing three categories: anomalies of the origin and course, anomalies of the intrinsic coronary artery anatomy, and anomalies of the termination. In the setting of anomalous coronary artery from the opposite sinus, the proximal anomalous CA may run anterior to the pulmonary trunk (prepulmonic), posterior to the aorta (retroaortic), septal (subpulmonic), or between the pulmonary artery and the aorta itself (interarterial). Among them, only those with an interarterial aorta-pulmonary course are regarded as hidden conditions at risk of ischaemia and even sudden death. We presented two cases with anomalous origin of coronary arteries from opposite sinus, and two other cases with anomalous origin of left circumflex artery. The atherosclerotic coronary artery disease leads to the need of coronarography which can find out the presence of coronary artery anomalies. Anomalous origin of coronary artery that is present with atherosclerotic changes continues to exist as a challenge during treatment in interventional cardiology.
Part of the book: Vascular Biology