Part of the book: Allergic Rhinitis
Therapy of allergic diseases in children implicates avoidance of allergens, standard pharmacotherapy, and immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergic diseases with the ability to change the natural course of the disease, thus stopping its further progression as well as the development of new allergic diseases and new sensibilizations. The objective of this chapter is to give insight into the latest data on immunotherapy in treating children with allergic diseases. Methods: The study involved a search for relevant articles on the MEDLINE and PubMed up to 2017. Results: Numerous studies have shown that the sublingual application of allergen-specific immunotherapy is adequate, safe, and efficient in the therapy of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases of the respiratory tract in children, but there are still some questions to be solved concerning the usage of SLIT in children younger than 5 years old, SLIT for polysensitized patients, duration of SLIT, long-lasting effects of SLIT. Conclusions: In order to improve the clinical efficacy of SLIT, we are looking for new routes of administration, new allergens, new protocols as well as combination of SLIT with other immune modulatory treatments.
Part of the book: Allergen
Allergic diseases are the most common chronic diseases in children and no complete agreement on effective measures for primary prevention is available. Atopic family history is one of the most important risk factors for the development of asthma. A decline in microbial diversity due to modern lifestyle particularly in urban areas was proposed to have an important role in allergic epidemic. Recent studies are more focused on the specific mode of prevention such as probiotic usage in early pregnancy and infants period. It is well known that the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota has been postulated to play a role in the development of allergies because it promotes potentially antiallergenic processes: TH1-type immunity, generation of TGF (which has an essential role in suppression of TH2-induced allergic inflammation and induction of oral tolerance), and IgA production, an essential component of mucosal immune defenses. Probiotic interventions administered during pregnancy and breastfeeding offer a unique opportunity to influence a range of important maternal and infant outcomes.
Part of the book: Atopic Dermatitis