The Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP) and Šumava National Park (ŠNP), established in 1969 and 1991, respectively, are located between Prague and Munich. Their long common border accents the transboundary issue regarding nature conservation, ecological corridors and connectivity. Plans to protect this large forest landscape, dating back to the early twentieth century, were never implemented due to the two World Wars and Iron Curtain. Initially, there were many joint activities. Many common projects (e.g., joint information centre, transboundary public transport system, GPS lynx and deer telemetry) were conducted. Both sides have learned a lot during these 25 years of cooperation. The main obstacles in cooperation are economic differences between the regions, language barriers and different policies and laws. There is only one common ecosystem of mountain forests, common populations of lynx, capercaillie or bark beetle, and the partners have to learn how to share their common responsibility for the future. Step by step, the transboundary cooperation is improving, which is very important in good years, but maybe even more important in bad years. The principle stance of the transboundary partner can buffer threatening in the neighbouring national park and support recovery when the crisis is over.
Part of the book: National Parks
Orchids are an endangered plant group, protected in the whole world. Questions of their conservation are therefore highly discussed, but not all factors affecting their survival and distribution are known so far. The purpose of this study was to determine the environmental factors influencing the existence of certain orchid species in their localities in our model area—South Bohemia. Our data were analyzed using the MaxEnt program, which produces species distribution models (SDMs) and allows predicting potential occurrence of orchids in yet unknown localities. This program also determines the environmental factors affecting species presence. This is important for better protection of orchids, because only by knowing these factors, we can find new localities or improve management plans. We studied two orchid species growing in South Bohemia: Dactylorhiza majalis and Platanthera bifolia. The main factors affecting their occurrence were the consolidated layer of ecosystems, habitat heterogeneity, cover of arable land, and vertical heterogeneity. We determined areas, where new sites are most likely to be discovered and show them in the maps of the area. This approach can help in finding new localities of orchids and in understanding, which environmental factors influence the occurrence of these endangered orchid species.
Part of the book: Selected Studies in Biodiversity