Part of the book: Orthodontics
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widely diffused disease associated with specific genetics, age, gender, craniofacial and upper airways anatomy, obesity, and endocrine conditions, but not with ethnicity profiles. The so‐called neurogenic neurogenic theory of OSAS postulates that the collapse of the upper airways that characterize this disease is due to peripheral nerve degeneration that leads to muscle atrophy and collapse. This review attempts to summarize the structural and functional changes in both the sensory and motor innervation of the walls of the upper air ways in patients suffering from OSAS.
Part of the book: Sleep Apnea
Sensory information from the aquatic environment is required for life and survival of zebrafish. Changes in the environment are detected by specialized sensory cells that convert different types of stimuli into electric energy, thus originating an organ-specific transduction. Ion channels are at the basis of each sensory modality and are responsible or are required for detecting thermal, chemical, or mechanical stimuli but also for more complex sensory processes as hearing, olfaction, taste, or vision. The capacity of the sensory cells to preferentially detect a specific stimulus is the result of a characteristic combination of different ion channels. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about the occurrence and localization of ion channels in sensory organs of zebrafish belonging to the superfamilies of transient-receptor potential and acid-sensing ion channels that are involved in different qualities of sensibility superfamilies in the sensory organs of zebrafish. This animal model is currently used to study some human pathologies in which ion channels are involved. Furthermore, zebrafish is regarded as an ideal model to study in vivo the transient-receptor potential ion channels.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Zebrafish Researches
Cutaneous biopsy is a complementary method, alternative to peripheral nerve biopsy, for the analysis of nerve involvement in peripheral neuropathies, systemic diseases, and several pathologies of the central nervous system. Most of these neuropathological studies were focused on the intraepithelial nerve fibers (thin-myelinated Aδ fibers and unmyelinated C fibers), and few studies investigated the variations in dermal innervation, that is, large myelinated fibers, Merkel’s cell-neurite complexes, and Meissner’s corpuscles. Here, we updated and summarized the current data about the quantitative and qualitative changes that undergo MCs and MkCs in peripheral neuropathies. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive rationale to include MCs in the study of cutaneous biopsies when analyzing the peripheral neuropathies and aim to provide a protocol to study them.
Part of the book: Demystifying Polyneuropathy
Temporomandibular disorders are common maxillofacial disturbs of different etiologies (traumatic, inflammatory, degenerative, or congenital) that course with pain and dysfunctions of the temporomandibular joint. The treatment of these disorders includes systematically administered drugs (especially nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and corticoids), physical therapies, and minimally invasive therapies that require intraarticular injections. These techniques are directed to clean or drain the articular cavity, to deliver intraarticularly drugs, biologically active compounds (as platelet-rich plasma), or to enhance lubrication (hyaluronic acid). Moreover, minimally invasive strategies are used in regenerative medicine for to deliver cells and stem cells, and nano- or micro-biomaterials. Surgery of temporomandibular disorders is only used in grave diseases that require arthrodesis or remotion of the temporomandibular joint. This review updates the nonsurgical therapeutic strategies to treat temporomandibular disorders, focusing the attention in the articular delivery or hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma, two minimally invasive widely used at present.
Part of the book: Cartilage Tissue Engineering and Regeneration Techniques