Resistance-capacitance (RC) delay produced by the interconnects limits the speed of the integrated circuits from 0.25 mm technology node. Copper (Cu) had been used to replace aluminum (Al) as an interconnecting conductor in order to reduce the resistance. In this chapter, the deposition method of Cu films and the interconnect fabrication with Cu metallization are introduced. The resulting integration and reliability challenges are addressed as well.
Part of the book: Noble and Precious Metals
Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials as an interconnecting insulator in integrated circuits are essential for resistance-capacitance (RC) time delay reduction. Plasma technology is widely used for the fabrication of the interconnects, such as dielectric etching, resisting ashing or stripping, barrier metal deposition, and surface treatment. During these processes, low-k dielectric materials may be exposed to the plasma environments. The generated reactive species from the plasma react with the low-k dielectric materials. The reaction involves physical and chemical effects, causing degradations for low-k dielectric materials. This is called “plasma damage” on low-k dielectric materials. Therefore, this chapter is an attempt to provide an overview of plasma damage on the low-k dielectric materials.
Part of the book: Plasma Science and Technology
To provide high speed, low dynamic power dissipation, and low cross-talk noise for microelectronic circuits, low-dielectric-constant (low-k) materials are required as the inter- and intra-level dielectric (ILD) insulator of the back-end-of-line interconnects. Porous low-k materials have low-polarizability chemical compositions and the introducing porosity in the film. Integration of porous low-k materials into microelectronic circuits, however, poses a number of challenges because the composition and porosity affected the resistance to damage during integration processing and reduced the mechanical strength, thereby degrading the properties and reliability. These issues arising from porous low-k materials are the subject of the present chapter.
Part of the book: Nanofluid Flow in Porous Media