Part of the book: Economic Effects of Biofuel Production
Part of the book: Biodiesel
Part of the book: Biofuels
Farming imposes unenthusiastic externalities upon society. It effects by different sources such as loss of biodiversity, land erosion, nutrient overflow, more water usage and pesticides. Optimistic externalities include respect of nature, independence, free enterprise, and the quality of air. Natural methods decrease some of these costs. It has been proposed that organic farming can reduce the level of some negative externalities from (conventional) farming. Organic farming seems to be more appropriate as it considers important aspects such as sustainable natural resources and the environment. For sustainable agriculture, the most important key is the conservation of natural resources. As natural resources become increasingly short in supply, in the coming years the transition to a more resource-efficient economy must be a top priority. Agriculture is the most important sector for ensuring food security for next generations while decreasing the resource use and increasing resource recycling. Various studies have been conducted to compare organic and conventional farming systems and the result shows that organic techniques are less damaging than conventional ones because of the decreased level of biodiversity, less use of energy, and lesser amount of waste production. The researchers of various studies concluded that comparing conventional and organic farming demonstrated that organic agriculture poses lower environmental impacts. However, researchers believe that the perfect result would be the expansion of ways to produce the uppermost yields possible by the combination of these two farming systems and to develop the new system for environment, land, and sustainable forests. Biodiversity from organic farming provides assets to humans. Species found in organic farms increase sustainability by decreasing human inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers.
Part of the book: Organic Farming
In this research study, we have scientifically assessed medicinal species and herbal preparations used by inhabitants of Northern Pakistan to treat joint pain, hypertension, skin diseases and glottis infections. The aim of the study is to document and highlight the ethnopharmacological significance and compare the uses of medicinal herbs for curing prevalent ailments in Northern Pakistan. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from 180 informants using semi-structured interviews and group meetings. A total of 80 plant species in 54 families were reported for the treatment of various health conditions. Heliotropium lasiocarpum, Geranium wallichianum, Parkinsonia aculeata, Rubia cordifolia and Salvadora persica were the favored plants for curing these diseases. Highest RFC was recorded for Neolitsea chinensis (0.956), Rubia cordifolia (0.928). The similarity of the informer’s knowledge about used medicines was found in Aesculus indica and Abies pindrow with high UV. Cuscuta reflexa and Lawsonia inermis had 98–99% fidelity level for management of joint pain, skin diseases, glottis infection and hypertension respectively. In Northern Pakistan, a rich diversity of medicinal plants was used in curing various diseases. The results of this study help us in screening of herbal plants for further phytochemical and pharmacological study which leads to discovery of natural drug and development with global interest for cure of various ailments.
Part of the book: Medicinal Plants