Part of the book: Pathogenesis and Treatment of Periodontitis
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics have been used to directly modify the resident oral microbiome and proposed to modulate immune responses. In dentistry, probiotics have been employed as useful adjuncts for the reduction of caries development, suppressing oral Candida infection and controlling halitosis. Plaque-induced gingivitis is a gingival inflammation caused by the adherent bacterial biofilm around teeth. Gingivitis and periodontitis are considered to be a continuum of the same inflammatory process, although many gingivitis lesions do not progress to periodontitis. Periodontitis is an inflammatory process that affects the attachment structures of teeth. It constitutes a second cause of tooth loss worldwide. Conventional treatment modalities of periodontal disease include non-surgical and/or surgical management, with an emphasis on mechanical debridement. However, mechanical debridement as a sole therapy is not always effective to improve clinical parameters. A growing number of studies support probiotic therapy to prevent or treat gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral administration of probiotics is an effective adjunct in reducing pathogenic bacteria and improving clinical signs of disease. Probiotics may serve as adjunct or replacement therapy substitute antibiotics in managing human periodontal infections in future.
Part of the book: Insights into Various Aspects of Oral Health